Cholesterol is the main lipid in the body. He comes to us with animal products. Its quantitative indicator is an integral marker of fat metabolism. In newborns, the minimum indicator is determined, over time, it begins to grow, and by old age reaches its maximum.
It is noteworthy that in men, the cholesterol level in a standard situation shows a low lipid profile. The norm for women is different, and with age, cholesterol in their body accumulates much faster. Good indicators are figures from 3,2 to 5,6 mmol / L.
Many ordinary people are accustomed to believe that cholesterol is some kind of terrible phenomenon. This is a clear fallacy, given that it is part of the membranes of every cell in the body. It enhances the protective properties of cells. Hormones such as testosterone, cortisol, estrogens, and others are synthesized from cholesterol. Without bile acids digestion is impossible, it is from cholesterol that they are formed.
– Congenital (primary). This hereditary disease, it is associated with a defect in the gene that is responsible for normal cholesterol.
• Diabetes. Due to the increase in glucose, blood thickens, and this contributes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The breakdown and synthesis of fats are disrupted. There are many fatty acids in the blood.
• Decreased basal metabolic rate – hypothyroidism.
• In diseases of the liver and biliary tract, cholesterol stones form in the gallbladder.
• Exposure to certain medicinal diuretics, immunosuppressants, and beta-blockers.
• Nutrition also affects – excess carbohydrates, abuse of fried and fatty foods.
- Lip >
- Negative Factors
- Other important facts
- Total cholesterol
- Blood test transcript
- Preparation for analysis
- The coefficient of atherogenicity (CA)
- Lipid profile indicators in children and adults
- What is this analysis done for?
- What do deviations from the norm mean?
- Lip >
- Healthy lifestyle
- Deciphering lipid profile values
- Survey purpose
- Indications for analysis
- How to prepare for the procedure
Excessive cholesterol naturally causes concern. However, it should be noted that the identification of various pathological processes only by these values is not possible, since an increase in the indicator is observed in some cases in completely healthy people.
Assessing the effect of fatty components on the formation of diseases associated with atherosclerosis is based on determining the ratio of all components that make up the lipid spectrum.
The diagnostic value of a lipid profile is to determine the values of all cholesterol fractions.
In plasma, cholesterol is presented in the form of molecules called lipoproteins. This is a combination of lipids (fats) and protein. Variations of molecules representing a detailed lipid profile of cholesterol composition are studied. It:
- LDL – low density lipoproteins. They are carriers of bad cholesterol. It is such a substance that facilitates the penetration of cholesterol from the liver, where it is produced, directly into the cells of the body. The presence in the blood of a high concentration of low density cholesterol causes them significant damage due to the sedimentation of lipoproteins of this type on them, which causes the development of pathological changes in the vessels and negatively affects the functioning of the heart. An increased concentration of LDL is a prerequisite for the formation of cholesterol plaques, which pose a threat to vascular health. The permissible norm of LDL is 65-70% of the total cholesterol.
- HDL – high density lipoproteins are carriers of good cholesterol. The activity of nutrients is to participate in a completely opposite process. They transport excess cholesterol from cells to the liver. Under the influence of liver enzymes, it undergoes cleavage, and then excretion from the body. If the level of high density lipoproteins is insufficient, a large amount of cholesterol accumulates in the tissues, as a result of which plaques form on the vascular walls.
- Triglycerides – VLDL. This is a kind of substance having the same composition as regular fat coming from food. In plasma, it is present as a result of abuse of fatty foods and carbohydrates. Excesses of these products are converted to triglycerides and stored in fat cells. The positive function of triglycerides is to provide the energy reserve used by the body, if necessary, with a lack of food. However, their excess is converted to low density cholesterol, which already indicates a violation of lipid metabolism.
- Total cholesterol (calculated taking into account all three components).
The lipid profile includes all types of lipoprotein molecules. Their normal percentage (atherogenic coefficient) ensures the proper functioning of the whole organism.
The atherogenic coefficient (KA) is not detected directly from a blood test. It is determined by calculating the formula: (LDL VLDL): HDL. The norm indicator is a value no higher than 3.5 units.
A number of reasons can lead to distortion of the results. Among them:
- the presence in the body of inflammatory and infectious processes;
- the patient has renal and liver failure;
- exhaustion, passion for fashionable diets;
Before the test, you should discuss with your doctor the problems. Such factors will be taken into account when evaluating the result.
Other important facts
When decoding a blood lipid profile, the following information is also taken into account:
- belonging to a certain gender;
- norms for age;
- genetic predisposition to diseases of blood vessels and heart;
- state of metabolic processes;
- blood pressure indicators;
Such an approach to assessing lipid profile parameters allows to determine with maximum certainty the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular pathology in a patient.
A medical blood test that gives an idea of the state of the body’s fat metabolism, as well as the risk of damage to blood vessels and the heart is called a lipid profile. It is a comprehensive study and carries a number of meanings:
- blood cholesterol;
- atherogenic coefficient;
- HDL (high density lipoproteins);
- LDL (low density lipoproteins);
- VLDL (very low density lipoproteins).
Before the study, you need to properly prepare. Before analysis for a lipid profile in three days, it is necessary to exclude animal fats, alcohol from the diet, to avoid emotional stress and physical exertion. Before research, dinner should be as light as possible. The next morning, do not drink anything (except water), do not eat, do not use toothpaste, chewing gum, and in no case do not smoke. It is very important to remain completely calm. Deciphering the results of the lipid profile depends on age and gender. In children, the indicators are different.
To control the metabolic process, it is necessary to periodically conduct a study on the content of lipids and cholesterol. In this article, you will learn about the rules for conducting and preparing for such an analysis, what is a blood lipid profile and what is a lipid spectrum in a biochemical blood test, and you will also find a detailed transcript of the study values and the necessary norms of indicators in adults and children.
A lipid profile (or, lipid profile or lipid spectrum) is such a biochemical study of the patient’s blood, which allows not only to evaluate the functioning of the fat metabolism in the body, but also to identify possible violations.
Regular screening for cholesterol and lipids allows you to avoid the appearance of many diseases, as well as start timely treatment when they occur, which eliminates the development of complications and greatly simplifies therapy.
It is important to remember that for the human body is dangerous any deviation of cholesterol from the norms, not only their increase, but also decrease. Even a seemingly slight deviation may indicate the presence of certain diseases in a person, for example, in the system of the heart and blood vessels, gall bladder or liver.
Lipids in the blood, like cholesterol, are fat-like organic compounds that are not soluble in water, so you need to monitor their content in the blood and excretion from the body.
When conducting a lipid profile, a complete lipid profile is studied, which immediately includes several important indicators that are of great value in diagnosis.
A blood test for the lipid spectrum shows the values of such indicators as: total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and atherogenicity coefficient.
The indicator of total cholesterol in the lipid profile is one of the key in the study of blood to determine the lipid profile. Many people today, thanks to a variety of sources of information, are confident in the absolute dangers of this component. Calls for the need to exclude from the diet all products that can increase this indicator are found almost everywhere. But not all cholesterol is harmful, but only its specific type.
It is important to remember that not only foods are the source of cholesterol. In addition to an exogenous source (consumed products), cholesterol enters the body in an endogenous way, that is, its formation occurs inside the body in certain organs. If disturbances occur in metabolic processes, then the formation of cholesterol is accelerated, which often leads to an increase in this indicator.
Scientists have proven that in most cases, the cause of atherosclerosis is precisely endogenous cholesterol.
Various ailments, for example, diabetes mellitus, in which there is an increased formation of not only cholesterol, but also ketone bodies, can lead to an increase in the indicator.
Increases the value of cholesterol and renal failure and diseases in this area, in which the body begins to quickly lose protein, because of which the blood structure is disturbed. The body at the same time seeks to restore the parameters of viscosity and pressure, as well as blood flow due to the additional production of lipoproteins.
The level of triglycerides usually corresponds to cholesterol, since these values are in equilibrium in most cases. For this reason, their increase almost always occurs simultaneously. This is explained by the fact that both substances are fat-like compounds, while performing the same function, transferring lipoproteins of almost the same type.
If the results of the study indicate an increase in one value against the background of a norm or a decrease in another, then such an analysis is considered unreliable and has no diagnostic value.
The inconsistency of the results may indicate that the patient ate a lot of fried and fatty foods during the day before taking the blood.
This name was given to low density lipoproteins (LDL) because the concentration of fats in them significantly exceeds the protein content, which causes a decrease in their density and specific gravity. Such complexes in the body, or rather an increase in their numbers, become the cause of the appearance of atherosclerosis plaques inside the vessels, on their walls. It is this fraction of lipoproteins that has the greatest effect on the amount of total cholesterol.
Doctors and scientists do not have a clear opinion about VLDL in the bloodstream. Almost all experts argue that these elements, along with LDL, are the main culprits for the occurrence of atherosclerosis. However, if LDL, under the condition of the normal value of this element, is a very important component in the blood that is constantly in it, then the role of VLDL is not yet known reliably.
Some scientists claim that the complex described above is a pathological form of lipoprotein elements in itself, and receptors for it in the human body have not yet been discovered.
Blood test transcript
For people who already have lipid metabolism disorders, the target is 1,8 mmol / L. It is achieved as a result of changes in the diet, the introduction of physical activity, drug therapy. A cardiologist or therapist prescribes the right treatment. If the decoding of the blood lipid profile shows cholesterol from 5,2 to 6,2, this is a moderate risk of developing atherosclerosis, with a figure of 6,2 and above, the level is high. We will deal with other indicators of the lipid profile.
- LDL This complex delivers cholesterol to tissues. The indicator that determines atherogenicity. In everyday life called “bad” cholesterol. It quickly attaches to the walls of blood vessels that are altered by any pathologies.
- VLDL. Lipoproteins related to “bad” cholesterol. However, they do not play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. They have only transport significance, being synthesized in the liver.
- HDL In another way – “good” cholesterol. Its concentration to a high degree reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis.
- Triglycerides. Lipids with structural and energetic functions. They are found in the blood of all people.
Preparation for analysis
There are certain indications for carrying out a lipid profile, but of course, anyone who wants to verify their health can receive a referral to such an analysis to check their cholesterol and lipids.
Among the indications for lipidograms can be called:
- The presence of hypothyro />Angina pectoris.
- The presence of diabetes mellitus, both the first and second type.
- Nephrotic syndrome.
- The presence of pancreatitis, especially if the disease is chronic.
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
- Diseases of the pancreas, in particular its cancer.
- Chronic form of renal failure.
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
- Numerous burns.
- Taking oral hormonal contraception for a long time.
- Myeloma disease.
- Megaloblastic type anemia.
- Intoxication of an alcoholic nature, including having a chronic course.
To obtain reliable lipid profile results, you should donate blood after some preparation and, observing the rules of the procedure.
It is very important to come for blood sampling on lipids early in the morning and strictly on an empty stomach, observing the interval between the last meal and the procedure for at least 8, and preferably 10 hours.
The day before the procedure, it is necessary to limit physical activity, avoid stress and anxiety. You should give up alcohol and smoking.
No diet is required, it is important to eat in the coming days before the procedure the same as usual, since the diagnosis of ailments requires real indications of cholesterol and lipids, so you should not try to specifically lower or overestimate them with the help of products.
The coefficient of atherogenicity (CA)
The ratio of “good” to “bad” cholesterol also includes a lipid profile. Decoding in adults (the norm is indicated below) gives an idea of the degrees of risk of developing atherosclerosis. The atherogenic coefficient is calculated as follows: the difference between cholesterol and LDL is taken and divided by HDL.
• Less than 3 is a minimal risk of developing atherosclerosis, as well as its further unpleasant consequences.
• From 3 to 4 – unfavorable prognosis. The risk is moderate. You need to adjust your lifestyle and diet.
• 4 and above. Violations of lipid metabolism were detected, and the process is already chronic, which requires treatment. High risk of stroke, heart attack.
Lipid profile indicators in children and adults
|Age||Norm in mmol / L|
|Babies under 1 month old||From 1,3 4,4 up|
|2 to 12 months||From 1,6 4,9 up|
|From 1 year to 14 years||From 2,8 5,2 up|
|From 14 to 65||From 2,8 5,9 up|
|Older 65 years||From 3,6 7,1 up|
|Normal performance||From 1,5 2,5 up|
|Low risk of atherosclerosis||From 2,5 3 up|
|Moderate risk||From 3 4 up|
|High risk of disease||More 4|
|Under 14 years old||From 0,9 1,9 up||From 0,9 1,9 up|
|From 14 to 20 years old||From 0,78 1,63 up||From 0,91 1,91 up|
|From 20 to 25 years old||From 0,78 1,36 up||From 0,85 2,04 up|
|From 25 to 30 years old||From 0,80 1,63 up||From 0,96 2,15 up|
|From 30 to 35 years old||From 0,72 1,63 up||From 0,93 1,99 up|
|From 35 to 40 years old||From 0,75 1,60 up||From 0,88 2,12 up|
|From 40 to 45 years old||From 0,70 1,73 up||From 0,88 2,28 up|
|From 45 to 50 years old||From 0,78 1,66 up||From 0,88 2,25 up|
|From 50 to 55 years old||From 0,72 1,63 up||From 0,96 2,38 up|
|From 55 to 60 years old||From 0,72 1,84 up||From 0,96 2,35 up|
|From 60 to 65 years old||From 0,78 1,91 up||From 0,98 2,38 up|
|From 65 to 70 years old||From 0,78 1,94 up||From 0,91 2,48 up|
|70 years and older||From 0,8 1,94 up||From 0,85 2,38 up|
|Under 14 years old||From 1,60 3,60 up||From 1,60 3,60 up|
|From 14 to 20 years old||From 1,61 3,37 up||From 1,53 3,55 up|
|From 20 to 25 years old||From 1,71 3,81 up||From 1,48 4,12 up|
|From 25 to 30 years old||From 1,81 4,27 up||From 1,84 4,25 up|
|From 30 to 35 years old||From 2,02 4,79 up||From 1,81 4,04 up|
|From 35 to 40 years old||From 2,10 4,90 up||From 1,94 4,45 up|
|From 40 to 45 years old||From 2,25 4,82 up||From 1,92 4,51 up|
|From 45 to 50 years old||From 2,51 5,23 up||From 2,05 4,82 up|
|From 50 to 55 years old||From 2,31 5,10 up||From 2,28 5,21 up|
|From 55 to 60 years old||From 2,28 5,26 up||From 2,31 5,44 up|
|From 60 to 65 years old||From 2,15 5,44 up||From 2,59 5,80 up|
|From 65 to 70 years old||From 2,54 5,44 up||From 2,38 5,72 up|
|70 years and older||From 2,49 5,34 up||From 2,49 5,34 up|
|Under 14 years old||From 0,30 1,40 up||From 0,30 1,40 up|
|From 14 to 20 years old||From 0,45 1,81 up||From 0,42 1,48 up|
|From 20 to 25 years old||From 0,50 2,27 up||From 0,40 1,53 up|
|From 25 to 30 years old||From 0,52 2,81 up||From 0,40 1,48 up|
|From 30 to 35 years old||From 0,56 3,01 up||From 0,42 1,63 up|
|From 35 to 40 years old||From 0,61 3,62 up||From 0,44 1,70 up|
|From 40 to 45 years old||From 0,62 3,61 up||From 0,45 1,91 up|
|From 45 to 50 years old||From 0,65 3,80 up||From 0,51 2,16 up|
|From 50 to 55 years old||From 0,65 3,61 up||From 0,52 2,42 up|
|From 55 to 60 years old||From 0,65 3,23 up||From 0,59 2,63 up|
|From 60 to 65 years old||From 0,65 3,29 up||From 0,62 2,96 up|
|From 65 to 70 years old||From 0,62 2,94 up||From 0,63 2,70 up|
|70 years and older||From 0,60 2,90 up||From 0,60 2,70 up|
No need to look for spells and magic potions to normalize your lipid profile. The price of the right food and a visit to the sports complex will be significantly lower than if you have to treat your “bad” cholesterol and its negative consequences. The old phrase “We are what we eat” comes to mind.
Limit primarily the use of fried foods, pastries, animal fats, sweets, salty foods. Include in your diet more fiber (legumes, vegetables, cereals, fruits), these products take away excess bile from the intestine, and prevent it from entering the bloodstream. As you know, bile is the “daughter of cholesterol.” Eat more often, but in small portions. So the correct metabolism starts in the body, excess weight will go away, cholesterol level will decrease.
What is this analysis done for?
So, it became clear that a lipid profile is what it is. And why is such a study carried out?
• The lipid profile first of all makes it possible to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease.
• The analysis is used to monitor the state of the body during treatment for atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, kidney ailments and diabetes.
• A lipid profile should be tested regularly if one of the relatives suffered from hypercholesterolemia, there were cases of strokes, heart attacks. This will help prevent the development of such health problems.
• A lipid profile allows you to control your body during the hypolipedymic diet, as well as during treatment.
What do deviations from the norm mean?
A laboratory study that allows you to identify the level of all components of the lipid spectrum, has a high diagnostic information content.
It allows you to detect a pathological process in the early stages of its development, even when the values of total cholesterol do not exceed the permissible norm.
Almost always, increased lipoproteins (except for HDL) indicate the presence of various diseases in the body. Among them, not only vascular atherosclerosis and cardiac ischemia, but also:
- pathological changes in the liver;
- urinary tract dysfunction;
- low levels of thyroid hormones;
- pancreatitis, diabetes;
Decrease in indicators is no less serious problem indicating probability:
- malignant neoplasms;
- lung pathology;
- infectious diseases;
A decrease in HDL is also observed with stomach ulcers, myocardial infarction.
When deciphering the results of the study to establish the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to take into account all the obtained values of the lipid profile.
If total cholesterol is low, this may indicate the presence of:
- Lung diseases.
- Physical exhaustion.
- Diet or complete fasting.
If cholesterol is elevated, this indicates:
- Possible pregnancy.
- Pancreatitis in a chronic form.
- Alcohol addiction.
- The presence of a pancreatic tumor of a malignant category.
- The presence of excess weight.
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
- Kidney disease.
- Chronic renal failure.
A decrease in low density lipoprotein indicates:
- Ailments of the lungs.
- Reye’s syndrome.
- Tangier Syndrome.
- Chronic anemia.
- The presence of malabsorption syndrome.
Beta lipoproteins are elevated if the patient has:
- Excessive amounts of cholesterol in the patient’s diet.
- An increase in hereditary indicators.
- Kidney or liver disease.
The appearance of very low density lipoproteins in the blood most often indicates the presence of a patient with kidney disease or severe obesity.
Other causes of very low density lipoprotein increase:
- Nyman-Peak Syndrome.
- Pituitary insufficiency.
- Possible pregnancy.
- Lupus erythematosus.
Decrease in HDL may indicate:
- A heart attack of any organ.
- Acute stages of infectious diseases.
- An ulcer.
- The presence of atherosclerosis.
- Kidney disease.
An increase in high-density lipoproteins usually indicates the presence of:
- Excessive exercise, depleting the body.
- Malignant intestinal tumors.
A decrease in triglyceride levels indicates:
- The presence of the same type of nutrition, not giving the body all the necessary elements.
- Poverty and malnutrition.
- Diseases of the lungs in a chronic form.
Elevated triglycerides may indicate:
- The presence of viral hepatitis.
- The presence of atherosclerosis.
- Myocardial infarction.
Carrying out a lipid profile allows doctors to detect atherosclerosis in the patient’s body, as well as various heart diseases and vascular systems.
An increase in cholesterol in the results of a lipid profile almost always indicates a person has metabolic abnormalities, as well as abnormalities in the liver. Such a study is prescribed to people who have suspicions of the presence of such ailments and disorders, to those who lead a lifestyle characterized by low mobility.
Lipid studies are also carried out for those who have a hereditary predisposition to high cholesterol, people with obesity and diabetes, those who suffer from alcohol dependence, as well as those who have a variety of disorders in the functioning of the endocrine system.
Now we know the lipid profile – what is it. We begin to bring its indicators back to normal.
• Regarding physical activity, start small – daily walks for short distances. Then you can go to Nordic walking with sticks, this will allow you to train the whole body. Very useful cycling and swimming.
• Do workouts at home, do not forget about yoga, it strengthens not only the body, but also has a beneficial effect on the psyche. Move more, be it cleaning the house, dancing, working on the site. Proper nutrition in tandem with sports effectively reduces weight.
• Smile more often, no matter what.
• Listen to your favorite music, do meditation, read interesting books.
• Spill out negative emotions.
• Do your favorite things (everyone has their own).
• Communicate with loved ones and family.
• Get rid of bad habits.
• Change the environment if you feel uncomfortable.
Stick to our tips. Change your own lifestyle, nutrition, and you will see how health begins to change for the better. All indicators of your lipid profile will return to normal.
Deciphering lipid profile values
Lipids are fats and fat-like components that make up the organic compounds necessary for the life of the human body.
This is the notorious cholesterol (cholesterol), around which there has been so much talk lately, coming down mainly to the opinion of the terrible harm caused by this substance to the body.
However, it should be recognized that the fats present in the body in an acceptable amount are the energy reserve necessary for the functioning of organs and systems.
At the same time, an excess of this substance in the blood becomes the main cause of the development of atherosclerosis, which poses a serious threat to health and life.
A lipid profile is the result of an important diagnostic study that determines the lipid composition of the blood. Biochemical analysis of the latter is significant in identifying pathological processes associated with diseases of the heart and blood vessels caused by a deviation from normal cholesterol in the blood. Its results are taken into account when prescribing a treatment regimen.
Indicators of total cholesterol do not provide comprehensive information about the presence / absence of a pathological process in the body. A blood test is performed to detect impaired fat metabolism, which has a negative effect on the state of blood vessels.
The criterion for assessing violations is the identification of deviations in the concentration of the so-called good and bad cholesterol up or down, as well as their percentage in the blood.
Indications for analysis
The main reason for carrying out a lipid profile is a predisposition to diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic manifestations in the myocardium, and diabetes mellitus.
In addition, it is recommended to examine blood for lipids if the following factors are present:
- age after 50 years;
- excess of permissible weight;
- genetic predisposition to impaired cardiovascular system.
A lipid profile is an essential component of a preventive examination and control that determines the effectiveness of a therapeutic course.
How to prepare for the procedure
It is possible to obtain reliable indicators of the lipid spectrum if the recommendations for preliminary preparation for the analysis are observed. Primary requirements:
- exclude physical stress on the eve of blood sampling;
- to withstand after the last meal at least 9 hours;
- refuse to eat fatty, fried and spicy dishes, as well as smoked meats, marinades, sausages 2-3 days before visiting the laboratory;
- avoid stress;
- banned alcohol, smoking.