The presence of blood in the sputum produced by coughing is often a benign symptom, but when should you worry?
Let’s look at the causes that can determine the presence of blood in sputum and the means to solve them.
Blood in the sputum after a strong cough is a very common situation, and although it can bring quite a bit of concern, it is almost always a benign manifestation that carries no risk.
Often the presence of blood in sputum is the result of rupture of blood vessels passing through the respiratory tract. The respiratory tract, in particular, the bronchi and lungs, like any other organ of the body, receive their portion of the blood supply, and therefore have arteries and veins in themselves.
The lungs are powered by the pulmonary artery, it is a low-pressure system, while the bronchi are powered by vessels that diverge from the aorta and, therefore, are a high-pressure system.
Given the pressure difference that exists between the two systems, it is reasonable to assume that most bleeding in the airways is associated with the bronchial blood supply system.
Hemorrhages that come from the pulmonary artery are fortunately very rare, but almost always massive and often fatal.
When to worry
In 90% of cases in which blood appears in sputum, they are the result of a mild inflammatory process affecting the upper respiratory tract, in particular, colds and bronchitis.
Despite the fact that hemoptysis in this case is only a symptom of inflammation, you can not underestimate it, because, in rare cases, it can lead to the development of serious pathology. Therefore, in such a situation, it would be prudent practice to see a doctor.
As already mentioned, the cause of the appearance of sputum with streaks of blood can be numerous diseases, although the most common is inflammation, which occurs from a common infection of the upper respiratory tract.
But a large number of other diseases can also lead to the appearance of blood in sputum:
- Sinusitis. Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, as a result of the accumulation of mucus in the paranasal sinuses and nasal passages, on which the infectious process of viral and / or bacterial etiology is actively developing.
- Laryngitis. Inflammation of the larynx of viral etiology, rarely bacterial (streptococcus and Haemophilus influenzae).
- Pharyngitis. Inflammation of the pharynx caused by viruses such as adenovirus or Epstein-Barr virus and / or bacteria such as streptococci.
- Acute bronchitis. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tree caused in 90% of cases by viruses (adenoviruses, influenza-like viruses, coronavirus, rhinovirus, etc.) and in 10% by bacteria (streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, etc.).
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Degeneration of pulmonary and bronchial tissues of a chronic nature, which complicates the transit of inhaled air. Cigarette smoking and air pollution are some of the main causes of this disease.
- Pneumonia. The inflammatory process of the alveoli of the lungs caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites.
- Tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung infection.
- Wegener’s granulomatosis. Autoimmune inflammation of the small vessels of the upper respiratory tract.
- Fibrosis (cystic fibrosis). A genetic disease leading to a deficiency of CFTR protein, which is responsible for chlorine transit. Which leads to the accumulation of fluids in vital organs such as the lungs and pancreas.
- Lungs’ cancer. The formation of tumor cells in the lungs.
- Mitral stenosis. A pathological narrowing of the valve that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. Mitral stenosis causes bleeding from small vessels of the lungs and, consequently, the appearance of sputum with streaks of blood.
- Pulmonary embolism. This term defines the condition when one of the two pulmonary arteries is blocked by a thrombus or blood clot. This condition is characterized by a cough with sputum and blood stains.
- Lung abscess. Purulent process in the lung parenchyma.
- The use of certain illegal drugs, such as cocaine and crack.
Diagnosis is to determine the cause, which leads to blood sputum after coughing.
The doctor makes the first assumption of the diagnosis based on the observation of sputum and associated symptoms.
Below we provide a simplified table of the relationship of diseases with various forms of hemoptysis.
Features of sputum and related symptoms
Pneumonia from bacterial infection
Sputum with blood and reddish pus.
Cough, fever, malaise, sweating, headache, shortness of breath.
Light sputum with streaks of blood
Bronchitis, COPD, lung cancer
Sputum thick with viscous streaks of blood
Intense cough, general malaise, chest pain.
Sputum is dark, viscous, fetid.
Cough, fever, chest pain, weight loss, an increase in the last phalanx of the fingers.
Sputum is light, mixed with blood, foamy.
Tachycardia, shortness of breath, chest pain, cyanosis, increased respiratory rate, low blood pressure, elasticity of the cervical veins.
Mitral valve stenosis.
Sputum light with streaks of blood
Difficulty breathing while lying down, palpitations, fatigue, asthenia
The assumption is confirmed by the results of the following studies:
- Visual examination of the respiratory tract. It is carried out using various methods giving a detailed image of the bronchi and lungs. Basically: chest x-ray, computed tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance.
- Bronchoscopy A study that allows you to examine the respiratory tree from the ins >
Treatment consists in treating the underlying pathology leading to the appearance of blood when coughing. Since the causative diseases are varied and heterogeneous, it is impossible to establish a single therapeutic protocol, and each case requires a specific treatment.
Until an accurate diagnosis is obtained, you can only “treat” a symptom, that is, suppress a cough. To this end, various active substances are used that act on the centers of the brain and suppress cough reflexes.
There are many sources that can cause similar symptoms. In this case, it is very important to correctly determine the cause of hemoptysis. A small amount of light blood appears in sputum as a result of increased pressure during coughing. And veins or clumps of dark red color – this is already quite an alarming signal. Such symptoms are characteristic of lung cancer or tuberculosis.
What ailments cause coughing blood? The causes of such symptoms are hidden in the following diseases:
- inflammatory processes in the lungs and bronchi;
- tonsillitis, laryngitis, tracheitis;
- colds, flu;
- gastrointestinal diseases (ulcers);
- cardiovascular ailments;
- injuries of the bronchi, damage to the trachea.
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Which doctor to contact?
Sputum is a natural discharge in bronchospasm, which consists of saliva, harmful microorganisms, dust and purulent particles. If the patient clears his throat, then doctors call such a cough productive. But with a negligent attitude to the initial stages of a cold, sputum with blood will stand out.
Streaks of red, scarlet or burgundy in the mucus should alert. Blood in the sputum during expectoration can not occur just like that. This condition is dangerous for the body and human life. An exception is damage to the oral cavity, due to which bloody particles got into the saliva. But if sputum with blood is released during coughing up constantly, then it is impossible to delay a doctor with a visit.
What this can be answered by an experienced specialist, after conducting a series of analyzes. If the parent sees the child’s blood on the headscarf during a spasm, then urgent care must be called. It is possible that there was a rupture in the respiratory system – this can lead to death. In this case, inflammation can occur without temperature, which is why people lose precious time.
If scarlet mucus appeared during bronchospasm in a child, then a doctor should be called home. Adults do not always try to call an ambulance, but you cannot postpone a visit to the hospital. Which doctor should I seek advice and exact therapy? Here is a list of specialists who are able to diagnose and prescribe treatment:
- The therapist is a general doctor. Based on the results of the analysis, he will appoint a visit to a narrow-profile doctor if he can not choose therapy on his own. Also, this specialist gives a referral to inpatient treatment, which is not recommended to be abandoned.
- A pediatrician is a doctor who specializes in helping children.
- TB specialist – treats the respiratory tract. They direct him to him if the fluorography images are not normal.
- Oncologist – the therapist will refer to him if there is a suspicion of cancer.
A bronchospasm accompanied by atypical mucus is an alarming sign. No bloody discharge can be ignored. Normal sputum has a translucent appearance and medium viscosity consistency. Pus and “something red” is already a complication requiring immediate treatment or hospitalization.
Before choosing a treatment, it should be determined from which body systems when coughing blood comes from? It comes from the respiratory tract, or is provoked by the sinuses, stomach, and oral cavity.
Concomitant symptoms are able to tell the patient the true cause of this phenomenon. For example, pulmonary hemorrhages are characterized by pain, unpleasant chest discomfort. In this case, the liquid released is usually colored pink. Blood coming from the stomach has a darker color scheme. Accompanying the phenomenon of vomiting, pain in the abdomen. Often with sputum, a portion of food or other contents of the stomach is secreted.
There are several reasons why such symptoms may occur. The vast majority of them are dangerous and require the most surgical treatment.
Common causes of the problem include the following:
- Bronchitis, both acute and chronic. It is characterized by a dry cough, followed by a cough with sputum, first normal, then with pus and bright scarlet elements. Blood, although present with such bronchitis, is never the main symptom.
- Tuberculosis With this disease, purulent sputum manifests itself, which contains streaks of blood. It is released both when coughing and outs />Parasitic infection in the lungs. Parasites damage the lung tissue, resulting in a cough with blood, as well as shortness of breath, allergic skin phenomena.
- Lung injury. If a person has a bruised lung, pierced it, or exposed to it using chemicals, it can also become a characteristic cause of coughing up blood. In this case, pneumothorax, a frequent complication of lung injury, may develop. With it, blood pressure drops noticeably, shortness of breath occurs, on the side where there was damage, there is a serious difficulty in breathing.
- Adenoma in the bronchus. With it, a cough occurs with a strong release of sputum, with blood and pus. Shortness of breath also occurs, and breathing becomes like a hiccup.
- Fungal infection of the lung (fungal pneumonia). In this case, you can notice, in addition to coughing up blood, weakness. Other symptoms also appear, for example, subfebrile condition and bronchial obstruction.
If you cough up blood when coughing, you need to make sure that it does not leave the stomach. With an inflammatory process in the lungs, the patient may experience discomfort in the chest. Sputum with streaks of blood has a foamy consistency and most often it is scarlet.
A cough before vomiting in a child can often be a sign of damage to the digestive tract. If he appeared after a cold, then a strong inflammatory process in the lungs of the child should be suspected. in any case, you should not delay visiting the doctor. The pediatrician will study the blood when coughing and prescribe therapy, most likely the treatment will take place in a hospital.
Why can such an unpleasant symptom appear? Due to various diseases, sputum comes out with blood when coughing. The reasons may be the presence of the following ailments:
- Bronchitis – blood with expectoration appears in every second case. Scarlet streaks often come out with pus. Another patient suffers from high fever and lack of air.
- Pneumonia – mucus is secreted with interspersed pus and bloody veins.
- Lung abscess – there are always streaks of blood in the sputum, and the mucus has an unpleasant fetid odor.
- Tuberculosis is a dangerous disease that shakes immunity in a short time. The patient suffers from high temperatures and at the same time greatly loses weight. Expectoration with blood is always present.
- Lung cancer – if a cough torments regularly, and a person begins to lose weight and even fever at night, then you can not ignore such symptoms. First there is blood in the sputum in the morning, but then with every spasm.
- Pulmonary embolism – at first the patient feels unbearable pain behind the sternum, and then there is blood when coughing in sputum.
As soon as the mucus with veins of bloody formations begins to be sprinkled, you should not hesitate to visit the doctor. If the attack happened at night, it is best to call an ambulance. When coughing up sputum with blood – this is not the norm, so you should act promptly.
In most of all cases, the pathological process occurs with ailments of the respiratory tract. Basically, a cough with blood appears with bronchitis or bronchiectasis.
In the acute or chronic stage of the disease, the patient suffers from severe coughing attacks. As a rule, dense sputum is released in very large quantities. Blood veins can often be found in it. However, this symptom does not appear in all patients who are diagnosed with bronchitis.
In most cases, there is a cough with blood in the morning.
Bronchitis: when to worry?
Coughing up blood with bronchitis is a common occurrence. The chronic course of the disease can be accompanied by regular attacks within 2-3,5 months. People do not pay attention to it, but as soon as sputum is expectorated with blood, patients begin to panic. Doctors regularly say that a timely visit to the hospital will save you a lot of problems. Any sore is easier to prevent than to conduct complex therapy.
Blood in the sputum when coughing is a symptom in which patients in 80% of cases are placed in a hospital. At home, it will be impossible to help a person with such serious indications. If the baby with a spasm tears, and at the same time veins of scarlet color are visible, then bronchitis can be suspected. Hospitalization is the only way to help the child.
With bronchitis, a cough with blood often resembles tuberculosis. Therefore, doctors often play it safe and prescribe a large number of tests. Blood in saliva is always a cause for excessive concern.
Lung abscess, pneumonia
The characteristic symptoms are inflammatory processes in the lungs. In this case, sputum becomes rusty or, on the contrary, bright scarlet. Accompanied by pneumonia, high fever, chest pain, severe deterioration in general condition. If the patient is weakened, then often the disease is fraught with such a serious complication as lung abscess.
In this case, the patient’s temperature rises rapidly, severe pain occurs in the chest. Sputum during coughing contains a small amount of pus. It takes on a greenish tint and has an unpleasant odor.
Most often, there is a strong cough with blood in the morning. In this way, the abscess is emptied. After this, the patient experiences noticeable relief. Body temperature decreases slightly.
Oncology of internal organs for a long time may not appear at all. In the future, the patient periodically coughs. In sputum there is blood in the form of clots or veins. Such symptoms are combined with worsening conditions. This is especially acute in the morning. Acquires a lingering cough.
Diagnosis if scarlet mucus appears
Sputum with blood that goes away during coughing is a fairly serious symptom characteristic of most pathologies.
The appearance of such a complaint in an adult or child indicates the need for a thorough diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment.
In addition, the presence of streaks of blood in the expectorant mucus may be a sign of a life-threatening disease or acute condition.
It is important to be able to conduct differential diagnosis on time and provide assistance to the patient.
Streaks of blood in sputum, primarily, indicate that there is impregnation of the formed elements and plasma into the lumen of the bronchial tree or there is damage to the vascular wall itself.
Etiological factors can be completely different from each other diseases affecting the cardiovascular or bronchopulmonary system.
In some cases, cough with sputum and blood is found in acute infectious diseases and only indicates mechanical damage to the vessel wall, which during the illness becomes less elastic and thin.
Frequent coughing shocks force air and mucus out of the lower and middle sections of the respiratory tract.
Mild or weak. It is characterized by the fact that sputum with blood clears its throat in the form of small and thin veins with an admixture of a rusty shade. The total volume should not exceed 30-50 ml.
Moderate, or small pulmonary hemorrhage. In this case, foamy dark pink or bloody mucus is released in a volume of 75-500 ml.
In any case, if streaks of red or brown color stand out with a cough, this is a direct reason to consult a doctor to identify the cause.
A specific process in the lungs (sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, bronchogenic, or central cancer, Goodpasture syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener’s granulomatosis).
In this case, hemoptysis is frequent, with clots and is accompanied by other symptoms of a lesion of the respiratory system: shortness of breath, discoloration of the skin, severe coughing, pain in the chest.
Perhaps strong weight loss, weakness and prolonged subfebrile condition).
Chronic and acute pathology of the bronchopulmonary system of various etiologies (pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, helminth and parasitic infections, legionellosis, heart attack or lung abscess, etc.).
At the heart of a heart attack or abscess in the lung is tissue necrosis, which is also accompanied by damage to the vascular wall and impregnation of plasma with shaped elements.
With purulent tracheobronchitis, in addition to hemoptysis, pus with mucus, shortness of breath and hyperthermia syndrome appear.
Congenital anomaly and rare lung pathology (cystic fibrosis, lobar emphysema, pulmonary hemosiderosis, silicosis and anthracosis, diffuse amyloidosis, foreign body aspiration and trauma).
The listed diseases and conditions are characterized by discharge with an admixture of blood and pus, frequent painful cough, shortness of breath and chronic hypoxemia.
All materials on the site are published under the authorship, or by the editors of professional physicians, but are not a prescription for treatment.
Ask the experts!
Cough is a frequent concomitant symptom of diseases associated with inflammation of the respiratory system. Such a protective reaction of the body is considered normal until the color secreted by the mucus becomes suspicious.
Sputum with blood when coughing is a symptom requiring an urgent visit to the hospital.
Coughing up blood with a cold is rare. If scarlet streaks are noticed in the mucus, then the patient’s condition has only worsened. Severe inflammation will be accompanied by high body temperature. Sometimes coughing up blood, the causes are harmless. With a debilitating spasm, small blood vessels may burst. For children, this condition is more dangerous than for adults. In any case, you need to see a pediatrician or therapist.
Sputum with blood with bronchitis is a frequent occurrence, but during colds, such formations should scare. A combination of bloody veins and pus is especially dangerous to health. Coughing up mucus should always be considered in order to notice the pathology in time.
Here is what one of the patients at the Tver Private Clinic writes: “I noticed that I spit bloody mass. Suspected of bronchitis, while coughing did not torment regularly. Probably about a month pulled with a visit to the doctor. I went to the hospital when I realized that I was expecting not only something red, but also pus. At the same time, the condition worsened sharply, the temperature increased.
Can a person avoid such complications? Blood in sputum with bronchitis, pneumonia and colds occur only if you do not take treatment in the early stages of the disease. Most often, this condition appears in advanced cases, bloody expectoration can be fatal if you continue to neglect your own health.
Мокрота с кровью без кашля требует тщательного изучения, чтобы правильно назначить терапию. Для борьбы с кровохарканием проводятся следующую диагностику:
- рентген легких – очаги кровотечений будут заметны на таком снимке. Кашель кровью у ребенка тоже будет изучаться при помощи этого аппарата, хотя детям не рекомендуют проходить флюорографию;
- компьютерная томография – современный метод диагностики легкого;
- анализ кровавой мокроты – позволяет выявить микроорганизмов, которые оказывают негативное влияние на организм;
- общий анализ – обязательная методика, которая позволяет точно выявить воспаление.
К сожалению, это одна из частых причин сильного кашля, сопровождающегося выделением крови. Данный симптом может являться осложнением любой формы туберкулеза легких. Поэтому, если носит кашель затяжной характер, а в мокроте присутствуют сгустки крови, следует немедленно обращаться к врачу. Нередко подобная симптоматика является первым признаком надвигающегося недуга.
Сопровождает туберкулез повышение температуры, снижение веса, сильная потливость, особенно по ночам. У пациента наблюдается повышенная утомляемость, мучительный кашель.
Если возникает кашель с кровью при простуде, в неотложном вмешательстве данное явление не нуждается. При лечении следует особое внимание уделить укреплению сосудов. В этих целях рекомендуется прием определенных витаминных комплексов. Прекрасным препаратом является «Аскорутин».
При простуде, которую сопровождает кашель с кровью, при бронхите достаточно эффективными признаны следующие методы народного лечения:
- Алоэ (мякоть) с медом.
- Отвар из имбирного корня с добавлением лимона.
- Теплое молоко с минеральной (щелочной) водой.
- Ингаляции над эфирными маслами или отваром картофеля.
- Сборы трав (грудные), характеризующиеся отхаркивающим эффектом.
Когда пациенты откашливаются при простуде, то это считается хорошо. Но иногда течение болезни может быть нетипичным. Обильное слюноотделение и пена алого цвета – симптомы, требующие вызова скорой помощи.
Курильщики тоже могут часто сталкиваться со спазмами, которые сопровождаются опасными выделениями. Мокрота с кровью по утрам, боль в грудной клетке, одышка, дискомфорт в области сердца – все это признаки онкологии или изнашивания дыхательной системы.
Любой отхаркивающейся слизи необходимо обращать внимание. Появление прожилок алого или красного цвета, должны насторожить. Если у знакомого или близкого человека случился спазм бронхов с кровавыми образованиями, то следует действовать по схеме:
- вызвать скорую;
- помочь пациенту принять позу полусидя;
- дать проглотить кусочек льда;
- голова больного приподнимается;
- нельзя, чтобы человек глотал слизь, пусть выплевывает в платок.
In any case, should expectorant expectoration with blood. The reasons for this condition can be very serious. The treatment will be long, drugs are prescribed depending on the nature of the disease, taking into account the characteristics of the patient.
As noted earlier, often unpleasant symptoms can cause damage to small vessels. In this case, a cough with blood for colds is not fraught with danger. However, it should be remembered that the frequent presence of veins in sputum should alert. The best solution for such symptoms is to undergo a complete medical examination.
To determine the causes of unpleasant symptoms, you should initially visit a therapist. If necessary, he will refer you to a specialist. This may be an ENT specialist, a pulmonologist, a TB doctor (if tuberculosis is suspected), or an oncologist.
However, to determine exactly whether a cough with blood occurs with a cold or a more serious illness, the doctor is able only after a laboratory examination. As a rule, the following diagnostic methods are recommended to the patient:
- General blood analysis. This examination will show the degree of the inflammatory process in the body.
- Sputum analysis. Allows you to diagnose bronchitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia.
- Sweat analysis. This study identifies cystic fibrosis leading to colds.
- Chest x-ray. A very important diagnostic method. It gives a complete description of tuberculosis, pneumonia, embolism, lung abscess, and cancer.
- Bronchoscopy (examination of the walls). A study is used to diagnose oncology, bronchiectasis and some other ailments.
- CT Computed tomography is able to detect in sufficient detail all changes in the lungs.
- ECG, coagulogram, FEGDS. These studies are used to identify the cause of the disease, the source of which is not a cold. In these cases, methods are used to determine cardiovascular and gastroenterological diseases. Clotting of blood is thoroughly investigated.
Any disease is much easier to prevent than to deal with it. Therefore, it is advisable to follow certain preventive measures. These include:
- Compliance with a healthy lifestyle. Do not forget about moderate physical loads and mandatory walks in the fresh air.
- Balanced diet. The diet should be enriched with trace elements and vitamins.
- Strengthening immunity. It is possible to recommend hardening.
- Complete cessation of smoking or its significant reduction.
- Treatment in sanatoriums for patients suffering from ailments of the bronchopulmonary system.
- Minimize crowded visits during outbreaks.
- Fighting colds at the first symptom. It is recommended not to bring the disease to complications.
- Timely diagnosis and treatment of ailments that can cause a cough with the presence of blood in the sputum. It is mandatory to control coagulation.
Remember that the treatment of diseases directly depends on the reasons that provoked it. At the same time, the prevention of unpleasant symptoms is completely in your hands. The right way of life, timely treatment of ailments, strengthening immunity will protect you not only from coughing up blood, but also provide good health for many years to come.
Avoid rupture of blood vessels with the help of prevention. It will contribute to strengthening overall health, reducing the risk of transition of pathologies to the chronic stage.
Blood Cough Prevention:
- good nutrition with vitamins;
- full sleep;
- treatment of colds at the first sign;
- physical exercises, exercise, walking for at least an hour in the fresh air, Nordic walking;
- strengthening the immune system, hardening;
- the exception of overwork, hypothermia, stressful conditions;
- to refuse visits to crowded places with epidemics, seasonal colds.
General recommendations are addressed to people who do not have respiratory problems. If the weak are lungs and the person is constantly catching cold, reinforced measures are needed. It is dangerous for these patients to have respiratory illnesses. Pathology often becomes chronic, difficult to treat. With age, immunity will gradually weaken.
Patients with problems of the bronchopulmonary system should be regularly treated in specialized sanatoriums. They must do fluorography annually, control blood coagulation. Smoking must be quit, as it is dangerous for weak lungs.
Coughing up blood means a serious internal disorder. Only a doctor can make a correct diagnosis and can begin treatment. It is dangerous to fight such manifestations independently. When a person begins to cough, you definitely need to see what secretions appear from the body. Sputum will show internal changes, a sweetish taste in the mouth will indicate pus. All these signs need to be remembered and told to the doctor.
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