Cholesterol is a vital substance. He takes part in the formation of all cell membranes, the synthesis of hormones and the formation of bile. Cholesterol can be high density and low. Popularly, these fractions are called good and bad cholesterol. So it is an excess of low density cholesterol that can lead to the development of atherosclerosis.
Hypercholesterolemia, or elevated cholesterol, manifests itself with hyperlipidemia – an increased content of lipids (fats) in the blood. Outwardly, this does not manifest itself. In order to find out the level of cholesterol and its fractions (LDL, HDL, triglycerides, atherogenicity coefficient), it is necessary to make an analysis such as a lipid profile. What is it and what to do if the results are above the norm, we will understand this article.
In healthy people, most often lipidogram indices are increased because of errors in nutrition or with an increased synthesis of internal (endogenous) cholesterol.
Cholesterol (cholesterol) is a substance related to lipids (lipos – fat), and the chemical structure of cholesterol refers to steroids. The lipid group includes: neutral fats (glycerides), fatty acids, phospholipids. Together with phospholipids, cholesterol is a part of cell membranes and is a building material, especially of the nervous system.
Cholesterol is a substance necessary for the normal functioning of the body. Once again I want to emphasize – for the normal functioning of the body! Without cholesterol, our body cannot function properly. Cholesterol is a source of the formation of bile acids, steroid and sex hormones. Most human tissues have the ability to synthesize cholesterol, but most of it is synthesized in the liver. Between the liver, blood plasma and tissues, a constant exchange of cholesterol occurs.
A person not only synthesizes cholesterol himself, but also receives it with food of non-plant origin. I’m talking about food that is not of plant origin. The fact is that cholesterol is found not only in animal products, but also in seafood!
There is a strong opinion among the population that cholesterol is very harmful. Various nutritional methods are being developed that exclude this substance from the diet.
But in fact, everything is a bit wrong. The body needs cholesterol, as it is the building material for cell membranes. Also, this substance is involved in lipid metabolism. Under the influence of cholesterol, some hormones are synthesized, so there is no way to do without this compound.
In addition, not all cholesterol is harmful. There are 2 types: good and bad. A good type is high density lipoproteins, and a bad type is low density lipoproteins (they form plaques on the walls of blood vessels).
The content of each type of lipoprotein should not exceed the general norm. The ratio of species among themselves should also be in equilibrium. Changing a single indicator (good or bad) will immediately affect the quality of the blood.
Why is cholesterol so dangerous, and why are they so afraid of it? At an elevated level, this substance begins to be deposited on the walls of blood vessels, gradually narrowing the bloodstream. Over time, the risk of heart attacks and strokes increases significantly.
Diet should include two components:
- The maximum reduction in the intake of foods with a high cholesterol content (see table.no.1). Eating dietary meat – rabbit, turkey; skim dairy products. It is good to replace dairy products (cottage cheese, cheese) with soy. Decrease in the total calorie content of food, especially if there is overweight. Take with food no more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day, see table
- Eating foods with natural lipotropic properties, i.e. due to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these products, a decrease in cholesterol occurs. These include vegetable oils: linseed, corn, pumpkin, olive, walnut. Other vegetable oils do not have such a lipotropic effect. Gradually replace the butter with these vegetable oils and completely switch to eating and using only these oils in cooking. I recommend eating fatty varieties of fish: mackerel, herring, sardines, tuna, halibut.
Many seafood contains cholesterol, but due to the content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fatty fish, this helps to break down and eliminate cholesterol. In seafood such as shrimp, squid, octopus, where there is no fat and, accordingly, omega-3, there is a lot of cholesterol that gets into the blood when eating these foods.
I remember how in kindergarten I was forced to drink fish oil. Of course, not for the prevention of atherosclerosis, apparently, for the prevention of rickets. Its disgusting smell and taste, I feel now with one mention: “fish oil.” It is good that now fish oil is released in capsules. The beneficial effect on lipid metabolism is due to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil. In addition to fish oil, drugs containing omega-3 are also released.
To talk about the use of alcoholic beverages as a means of lowering cholesterol. Undoubtedly, drinking alcohol does not lower cholesterol. Moreover, alcohol irritates the liver, leading to fatty hepatosis and the development of cirrhosis. The intake of red natural dry wine helps to improve the lipid profile due to special substances contained in the peel and seeds of grapes.
Remember that even the most severe diet can reduce total cholesterol by 15 – 20%. Let me remind you that the bulk of cholesterol is synthesized by the liver.
According to the British Dietetic Association of Vitamins and Nutrition Supplements, there is no evidence that taking vitamins, antioxidants, or other nutritional supplements can help prevent and treat atherosclerosis. However, according to Canadian scientists, a low-fat diet rich in plant styrenes and dietary fiber can lower low-density lipoproteins (Journal of the American Medical Association, 2005). Therefore, I will give a number of herbal preparations for the complex treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
Collection: the fruits of hawthorn blood-red – 15 gr., The fruits of the chokeberry aronia – 15 gr., The fruits of wild strawberry – 15 gr. Two tablespoons of the collection pour 500 ml of water, heat in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cool for 10 minutes, strain and bring the amount of broth to the original volume with water. Take 100 ml 3-4 times a day.
Now let’s talk a little about garlic, and the myth that it affects cholesterol lowering. In 1972, the UNESCO expedition found clay tablets with mysterious recipes for traditional medicine in the Tibetan monastery. They managed to decipher. The following was written there: “cleanses the body of fatty and calcareous deposits, dramatically improves the overall metabolism in the body, as a result of which all vessels become elastic.
Due to this, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sclerosis, the formation of various tumors are prevented, headaches, noise in the head disappear, and vision is restored. With accurate and meaningful treatment, the human body is completely rejuvenated. ” In the late 70s of the twentieth century, this recipe, garlic infused with alcohol, went around all the popular science publications of the Soviet Union.
Many people used it without apparent positive dynamics. Currently, he is of interest from the standpoint of studying the history of medicine. Although there are currently followers of this recipe. In my medical practice, there were patients who performed everything strictly in accordance with the instructions, but without results.
It is interesting that in Russian folk medicine there is evidence of garlic as an anti-aging agent. Garlic is a powerful biostimulant. It helps with dysbiosis, asthenia (lethargy, weakness, fatigue), helminthic invasion. It is no coincidence that the Hare Krishnas (followers of one of the Indian religions) do not consume garlic along with alcoholic beverages and other substances. Since this stimulant will distract from spiritual awareness of the postulates of Krishnaism, which means “enlightenment”.
The undoubted negative property of garlic is its sharp specific smell. Now they sell in the pharmacy network an extract of garlic in special capsules. It should be remembered that the use of garlic is contraindicated in persons with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, etc.). It has a strong irritating effect.
There are products that lower cholesterol in the body and contribute to its elimination. These include: oatmeal, apples, plums, various berries, legumes (beans, peas), rice (especially brown). All of them contain soluble fiber (pectin, gluten) and form a jelly-like mass during cooking. It’s good to eat nuts.
And also drink green tea. And if you add cardamom when brewing green tea, it will be a very interesting taste, and useful. Green tea contains flavonoids, which strengthen the walls of blood vessels and have antioxidant properties. Flavonoids are also found in wild rose, blackcurrant berries, aronia, lemons. And these products are rich in vitamin C, which is also very useful for patients with hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
Juices from potatoes, beets, carrots, watermelon, cabbage, pumpkin are useful for atherosclerosis. It is good to eat seaweed. For your convenience, a table has been compiled.
General diet tips:
- Egg whites do not contain cholesterol, so replace them with whole eggs in recipes (add 2 proteins to each whole egg).
- When cooking soup, cool the meat broth and remove a layer of hardened fat. When cooking, cut off the fat from the meat and remove the skin of the bird.
- Avoid fried foods.
- Combine meat dishes with vegetables or pasta.
- Season vegetable salads and snacks with lemon juice, herbs, spices (cardamom, celery, parsley, curry, garlic, etc.).
- Limit the use of mayonnaise, fatty sauces, ketchup.
- If you want sweets, oatmeal cookies or popsicles are best for you in such situations.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.
Drug treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis
Medication should be prescribed by a doctor depending on your individual lipid profile of blood plasma, your associated diseases: liver disease, are you sick with diabetes or hypertension, etc. Do not take medications on the advice of relatives, friends and acquaintances.
If a certain drug has helped your neighbor, then this does not mean that it will help you. Because you have a unique organism, your own course of the disease and your associated diseases. However, drug therapy can be described in general terms, without specifying the name of the drug. (I will not be engaged in the advertising of individual medicines).
A universal remedy for lowering cholesterol and normalizing lipid status does not yet exist. Two main groups can be distinguished: drugs that reduce cholesterol and drugs that reduce the level of triglycerides. In recent years, so-called fibrates and statins have been increasingly used. They mainly inhibit the synthesis of hepatic cholesterol.
Thus, acting on the liver, which leads in some cases, even to toxic effects on the liver. However, the pharmaceutical industry does not stand still, and new statins appear that do not have a toxic effect on the liver. And when using statins, of course, you must follow a diet, because 30 – 35% of cholesterol comes from food.
Statins improve endothelial function and affect atherosclerotic plaque (Boneti PO et al. Europ. Heart J., 2003). Another series of difficulties that do not lead to the massive use of these drugs is that they are expensive and affect the period of use. And you need to take these drugs almost for life.
What meat to exclude with a low cholesterol diet
Meat. Eat lean slices of beef, veal and lamb: loin, shoulder, thigh, lumbar, tenderloin. Cut off all the fat from the pieces of meat immediately before cooking. A complete refusal to take red meat, rich in protein and iron, is not recommended – it can lead to anemia, especially in young women.
Avoid the use of semi-finished meat products, sausages, sausages, salami, bacon and other industrial processed meat products that are produced using hidden fats. For example, grilled beef sausages contain up to 17 g of harmful saturated fats for every 100 g of product, in pork sausages – up to 25 g of fat per 100 g of finished product. Offal (liver, kidney, brain) contain a lot of cholesterol and can not be recommended for a healthy diet.
Try to cook boiled or steamed meat dishes, and when cooking meat, use vegetable oils. Veal can be a good alternative for those meat lovers who follow a low cholesterol diet. For example, roasted veal escalope contains 6,8 g of fat per 100 g of product, of which only 1,8 g (26%) are saturated fats. Steamed minced veal contains 11 g of fat, of which saturated fat is less than half (4,7 g).
Bird. Try to eat more poultry meat (chickens, chicken, turkey), replacing them with fatty varieties of beef and pork. When cooking poultry, remove all visible fat and skin that contains a lot of cholesterol. When frying poultry, use vegetable oils. An excellent choice is turkey meat – it contains only 3-5% fat.
Fish. It has now been proven that regular consumption of fish, especially fatty varieties that contain omega-3 fatty acids, can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction by a third. For the prevention of myocardial infarction, the required amount of omega-3 fatty acids is 500-1000 mg per day. This amount of Omega-3 is found in two to three regular portions of fatty fish per week.
The eggs. Egg yolks have a lot of cholesterol, so you should eat no more than 3-4 eggs per week. Egg whites can be used without particular limitation.
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