With any surgical intervention, the patient’s body is under tremendous stress, so a slight increase in body temperature is considered a natural phenomenon. Even after a correctly performed operation, the patient has low-grade indicators at the level of 37,2–37,7 °. Natural factors influence this:
- If surgeons opened a purulent wound or abscess, the decay products remain in the body and are gradually suppressed by the immune defense.
- On the first day, mild dehydration is often observed. This is manifested in weakness, drowsiness, and the appearance of chills.
- With severe tissue damage (amputation, organ excision or intestinal resection), temperature is a protective reaction to established drainage.
Norm indicators in each case are individual: the heavier the operation, the more difficult the rehabilitation period is. Often the temperature rises smoothly and without jumps, reaching its highest peak in the afternoon. With proper treatment and the absence of complications, it should completely disappear on the 5-7th day.
When surgery on bone tissue temperature fluctuations are rare. When purulent peritonitis or phlegmon is removed, an increase to 39 ° is considered normal.
If the patient has a temperature for a long time after the operation, this is a rather serious signal, which may indicate the development of various pathological processes in the body.
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- The main tasks in the restoration of the intestine after surgery
- Types of Interventions
- We restore the balance of intestinal microflora after taking antibiotics
- How to establish normal bowel movement after prolonged use of laxatives?
- Useful recipes
- Diet mitballs
- Temperature as a consequence of complications
- Surgical treatment of bowel cancer: Indications and objectives
After the surgical intervention, infectious processes appear in the body, which are accompanied by an increase in temperature. The severity of the side effect depends solely on the degree of contamination of the damaged tissue.
In this case, the main thing to note is exactly when and how long the temperature is kept after the operation. Only after a comprehensive examination and medical history can a doctor prescribe an effective and safe therapy, usually using antibacterial drugs.
If the formation of an abscess or purulent focus is observed, a second surgical intervention may be required.
The fact is that a patient’s prolonged exposure to anesthesia increases the activity of the blood coagulation system. This circumstance can be attributed to the main side effect of the effects of anesthesia on the human body. Most often, this effect is observed in patients older than 45 years.
It is also worth considering that the risk of phlebothrombosis increases if the patient has been anesthetized for more than 4 hours. The main symptoms of this phenomenon, in addition to fever, are:
- pain in the limbs and swelling;
- loss of strength, general weakness;
- bluish color of the skin, pallor.
Getting rid of complications involves compliance with bed rest and taking anticoagulants. An elastic bandage is also applied to the affected limbs. If these procedures did not have the desired effect, repeated surgery is performed to get rid of phlebothrombosis.
Such an endocrine disorder is observed in the postoperative period. Thyrotoxic crisis is accompanied by a sharp increase in the limit level of thyroid hormones in the patient’s blood.
The main symptoms of this pathology:
- muscle weakness;
- restless state;
- the urge to vomit;
- trembling, especially in the limbs;
- loose stools, diarrhea, stomach pain;
- elevated temperature.
Thyrotoxic crisis most often occurs after an operation on the thyroid gland or intestines.
Thyrotoxic crisis in the postoperative period
It is worth noting that the human body reacts differently to one or another type of surgical intervention. The following methods of getting rid of the side effects that have arisen directly depend on the type of infection and a number of other factors.
Common symptoms of iron deficiency anemia and their danger
The temperature in the postoperative period can hold for a long time, but you can never deal with this unpleasant phenomenon on your own, since this can lead to a worsening of the condition. Any deterioration must be reported to the doctor.
There are also additional circumstances in which the temperature after surgery can hold for a sufficiently long period of time:
- Bad seam. If a poor-quality stitched seam has spread, this becomes a serious threat to the patient, which can lead to inflammation of the wound.
- Necrosis. If a poor-quality cleaning was carried out during the operation, in this case, the remnants of removed tissues or organs can lead to necrosis.
- Pneumonia. After using the artificial respiration apparatus, the occurrence of pneumonia is a very common occurrence. In this case, antibiotics are also used for treatment.
- Blood transfusion. Each organism reacts differently to this procedure. In some cases, an increase in body temperature is observed for a sufficiently long time.
There are several explanations for this phenomenon. First of all, the reason for its increase is caused by physiological factors. As a result of laparoscopy, as well as other surgical intervention, a wound is formed, which is stress for the body. Why is the temperature after laparoscopy? Regardless of the origin, the wound process has a corresponding course, which is divided into several phases:
The first one takes about a week in duration. During this period, energy processes predominate, and some indiv >
How long does the temperature hold after laparoscopy? In most cases, it normalizes a week after the operation. It should be noted that with this type of surgical intervention, the temperature rarely exceeds 38 degrees. For example, after a laparoscopic surgery to remove an ovarian cyst, gall bladder, or appendicitis, body temperature can reach 37,5 degrees in the evening.
Such a moment is directly dependent on the severity and extent of the surgical intervention. And this is explained by the course of the wound process. If the individual had drainage installed, then after laparoscopy, the temperature is kept at 37 degrees and above more than a week. This phenomenon is also not considered abnormal, but is a response of the body.
An increase in body temperature can be triggered by various factors, from the normal reaction of the body to the intervention and ending with the presence of suppuration of the wound. Therefore, when there is no pus, the edges of the wound and the adjacent area of the skin have a normal color (without redness), then this state of the body is the norm.
Do not worry. But immediately you need to make a reservation that if the temperature lasts too long, it is better to consult a doctor. The fact is that destructive processes may not be visible from the outside, everything will happen inside. In consultation with the doctor, a number of tests are prescribed to help establish the true cause of the problem.
The low-grade fever (37-37,5) can last about 3-5 days after surgery. By the end of the first week, she will return to normal. In the rehabilitation period, it is important to control your condition, since a symptom can occur one month after the operation. If such a situation has occurred, then it is quite possible that an inflammatory process has begun in the body. What it will be connected with, with the wound or illness itself, it will be necessary to find out.
If the surgery was abdominal in nature, then such a patient will have a higher temperature. For example, when cutting out the patient’s appendix, then the temperature is held at 39 degrees. A similar picture can be observed in situations of other purulent formations, when they are eliminated in an operable manner.
During operations on the limbs and upper tissues, the temperature may rise slightly and do not last as long as during cavity surgery. It can just vary between 37-37,5 degrees, and if it rises higher, then this is an alarm.
It is worth noting that this symptom does not always accompany the postoperative period. It all depends on the individual properties of the human body.
For the sake of justice, it is worth mentioning that it also happens that the temperature drops. Of course, many may not take this fact into account. However, a decrease will indicate that the body is weakened, and its protective functions are in poor condition. In such a situation, a person is “open” to all infections, in addition, the healing process itself may require a longer period. Low temperature can signal a doctor with a disease such as vegetative-vascular dystonia.
If the temperature rises after the operation, then the following points should be taken into account:
- what are its indicators;
- what day did she rise;
- how long does it last.
If the temperature is high, it rises immediately after surgery and does not go away for more than a week, then a visit to the doctor should be the first in the to-do list. Otherwise, you can get serious complications.
Elevated body temperature after surgery is the norm. It is also worth controlling other manifestations of the body to ensure the speedy restoration of damaged tissues.
Elevated temperature is the norm, if the following postoperative side effects are not observed:
- redness of the tissues adjacent to the wound;
- discharge from the wound of pus;
- feeling of weakness, etc.
The main tasks in the restoration of the intestine after surgery
The rehabilitation technique for the restoration of the intestine after surgery should include the following tasks:
- normalization of intestinal motility (restoration of physiological motility with regular stools);
- preventive measures to prevent drug-induced dysbiosis, dyspepsia;
- improving the process of digestion and assimilation of food, the restoration of damaged intestinal mucosa;
- preventing the development of possible postoperative complications;
- improving the quality of life of the operated patient.
Types of Interventions
All operations are divided into 3 groups:
- laparotomy (open, with a wide dissection of the skin of the abdomen);
- laparoscopic (performed by introducing through a few small incisions of the optical device and instruments);
- endoscopic, without opening the abdominal cavity, by introducing an endoscope into the lumen of the organ through natural openings.
Endoscopic intestinal polyp removal
Classical laparotomy is mainly used to remove parts of the organ – the thin, direct, sigmoid, colon sections for cancer, vascular thrombosis with necrosis, congenital anomalies. The laparoscopic method is used in the case of benign tumors, for dissecting adhesions, modern operating robots work on this technology. The surgeon controls the “hands” of the robot using a remote control under the control of the image on the screen.
Endoscopic technology is used to perform the operation to remove the polyp of the rectum, sigmoid and colon, to extract foreign bodies, and conduct a biopsy. Usually all this is done during a diagnostic colonoscopy.
In terms of the volume of the operation, they can be radical, with the removal of part of the organ, palliative, aimed at restoring patency, as well as organ-preserving. Alternative methods are widely used in modern surgery – laser, ultrasound surgery.
We restore the balance of intestinal microflora after taking antibiotics
The use of antibiotics used in the treatment of inflammatory and other diseases is often accompanied by inhibition of beneficial microflora in the intestines of the digestive tract and dysbiosis.
To restore the bacterial balance and improve the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract after antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are usually prescribed, it is recommended that proper nutrition and an active lifestyle are followed.
Treatment of dysbiosis with prebiotics and probiotics is carried out in a long course. Usually 1-2 courses are enough to restore the balance of beneficial bacteria. It is also necessary to follow a balanced diet.
It is very important to drink plenty of fluids, include vegetable fats (olive and sunflower oils) in the diet, and minimize the number of baked goods, spicy and fried foods.
Any disease is better to prevent than to treat. Therefore, probiotics and prebiotics are often prescribed together with antibiotics. Also, to prevent the occurrence of dysbiosis during the treatment period, you can use folk remedies.
As prophylactic agents, they are great for:
- herbs fees;
- dog-rose fruit;
- sour berries;
- fermented milk products of own fermentation (yogurt, yogurt, kefir).
Table No. 0 – assigned to patients after surgery. It is subdivided into 3 types:
- No. 0A – liquid jelly, light low-fat meat broth. Daily calorie content – 1200 kcal. The number of meals is 6-8. The maximum single serving is 300 ml.
- No. 0B – in addition to the products permitted by diet No. 0A, the diet includes mashed rice, buckwheat or hercules porridge in water, fish or meat puree, protein omelet, soft-boiled eggs, and jelly-like vegetable soups. Calorie content increases to 1700 kcal. The number of meals is reduced to 5, and the serving volume is increased to 400 ml.
- No. 0В – fermented milk and dairy products (low-fat cottage cheese, sour cream, low-fat milk), boiled or steamed main dishes from low-fat meat and fish, crackers from white bread (up to 100 g per day) are added to the already allowed products after restoration of the digestive system functions ) The number of calories increases to 2000-2500 kcal.
Special nutrition should be in patients after resection of the large intestine and excretion of unnatural anus. Such patients must observe three main parameters of nutrition:
- the amount of eaten;
- the quality of products that prov />
The amount of solid food eaten should always be in the same proportion with the drunk liquid. For example, for breakfast, the patient always eats one plate of porridge and drinks one glass of tea. Porridge can be from different cereals, and tea – different degrees of brewing. Lunch, dinner, and other meals should also include a stable amount of solid food and fluid. So it will be possible to control the density of the stool.
If necessary, thickening stool, porridge is cooked thicker, from rice and buckwheat, semolina and pea are excluded. They cancel everything that promotes peristalsis and gas formation: sour dairy products, fresh fruits, coffee with milk, compote from plums.
To liquefy feces, increase the proportion of liquid in the diet, reduce the portion of food, reduce the amount of salt, add prunes, fruits, yogurt, vegetable soups without meat to the diet.
The third condition of a normal stool is eating at certain, fixed once and for all hours.
Any operation imposes some restrictions on the patient regarding nutrition. In order for the digestive tract to return to normal operation soon, it is very important after the operation, and this can be achieved if:
- provide complete rest to the digestive organs in the first day after the intervention. And this means completely giving up food (in the case or other organ of digestion);
- follow a strict diet, according to all recommendations, at least within 20 days after surgery;
- refuse rough and annoying food. Smoked meats, pickles, fatty and fried foods are definitely out of place now;
- meals should be at least 6;
- preference to give steamed and boiled dishes;
- before eating, all food must undergo mechanical processing, it will be easier for the body to cope with crushed products;
- breakfast on a schedule (daily at the same time) can have a healing effect on the intestines and normalize its work.
Violation of at least one rule from this list greatly complicates the work of the intestine and slows down the recovery of the whole organism.
How to establish normal bowel movement after prolonged use of laxatives?
People suffering from constipation often abuse laxatives, which leads to stretching of the rectum, its hypotension and, as a result, to a chronic form of constipation.
To get rid of constipation and restore intestinal motility, it is necessary to establish a diet and exclude foods that slow down intestinal motility from the diet. In addition, you should include in it more fluid and food, stimulating the motor activity of the intestine.
The entire daily amount of food per day should be divided into at least 4 doses, the amount of fluid used (preferably drinking water) should be at least 1,5-2 liters per day. It is advisable to choose bread from coarse flour, with the addition of bran. Porridge should be prepared from millet, oat, buckwheat or pearl barley.
Also, a large number of vegetables (zucchini, beets, carrots and pumpkins), fruits (apples, pears, kiwi, figs), berries and sour-milk products should be included in the diet.
Products that cause increased fermentation in the intestines (legumes, cabbage, grapes, etc.), containing essential oils (radishes, garlic, turnips, etc.) and tannins (jelly, strong tea) are not recommended for use.
One of the diet dishes are mitballs, which are round chicken balls.
For cooking, you need to take 1 chicken, 300 ml of cream with the lowest fat content, 1 cup of low-fat milk, 1 carrot and onion, a little parsley. First you should start processing the chicken. From fillet you need to cut off all the films and clean it well. Then you need to chop it into cubes and pass through a meat grinder.
Grate the carrots and finely chop the onion into cubes and send to the minced meat. Mix thoroughly and make small round balls out of them. At this time, start preparing the sauce, mixing chopped parsley with cream. Grease the shape of the double boiler with vegetable oil and put out the formed mitballs. Add the prepared sauce to them and cook in the stewing mode. The procedure takes about 40 minutes.
Temperature as a consequence of complications
Although this procedure is considered to be one of the easiest and most sparing operations in comparison with many others, it still cannot do without complications, albeit very rare. These complications can have various symptoms – including symptoms may include fever. Here’s what can happen to a person:
- Thrombosis. Usually this happens in elderly patients. After the operation, they are usually prescribed special medications that help thin the blood.
- Subcutaneous eczema. After laparoscopy, a certain amount of carbon diox >
If a postoperative complication is found, you should immediately contact your doctor. He will conduct the necessary types of examinations and prescribe adequate therapy. Do not try to independently cope with the situation or resort to the advice and help of friends and relatives. If the temperature keeps after laparoscopy, then as a symptomatic therapy, doctors most often recommend non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:
The above drugs have a low level of toxicity and cope well not only with fever, but also reduce inflammatory and pain processes. It is important to remember that an increase in temperature in the postoperative period is not always a complication. According to the observations of practical doctors, after the operation of laparoscopy, the temperature rises to 39 degrees and lasts about seven days, after which the individual is fully restored and ready to start working.
Surgical treatment of bowel cancer: Indications and objectives
Before an operation for intestinal cancer, a very thorough examination should be carried out to determine the state of the tumor or, more precisely, the location of the tumor in the intestine and its possible proliferation. The most common examinations include:
- digital rectal examination (palpation of the lower part of the rectum) to assess the spread of the tumor and predict the preservation of the function of the sphincter after surgery for intestinal cancer;
- ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the abdominal organs in order to assess the possible growth of the tumor outside the affected organ;
- chest x-ray (chest x-ray) to exclude or detect lung metastases;
- determination of the level of CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA) before the operation of intestinal cancer is the initial indicator of subsequent monitoring of the course of the disease, as well as assessing the prognosis after surgery;
- rectoscopy (proctoscopy) in order to determine the extent of the tumor in colorectal cancer;
- endosonography (endoscopic ultrasound) to determine the depth of tumor infiltration in colorectal cancer;
- colonoscopy is used to accurately examine the entire colon to detect other possible intestinal polyps or tumors.
Immediately before and during an operation for intestinal cancer, the following measures are taken:
- the intestines are thoroughly cleaned (with a special solution that has a laxative effect and is usually taken orally);
- an antibiotic is taken against infections (bacteria of the intestinal flora can cause dangerous infections in the abdominal cavity);
- the skin area where the cut should be made is selected (for better disinfection);
- preventive measures are taken against thrombosis.
Surgery of the small intestine involves various methods of surgical treatment. Next, some of them are presented to your attention.
Bowel cancer operations are performed in many clinics (university clinics, district hospitals) and bowel cancer centers. Bowel cancer centers are clinics that have been awarded a certificate for their special medical care for bowel cancer clients.
The main goal of bowel cancer surgery is to completely remove the tumor and thereby cure the cancer. The task of the surgical intervention, along with the removal of the intestinal tumor, is also the removal of metastases (secondary tumors, for example, in the lungs and liver), examination of the abdominal cavity and its organs, as well as the removal of lymph nodes for diagnostic purposes in order to check for possible spread through the intestines.
If all tumor tissue is removed during surgery, including possible metastases in the lymph nodes or other organs, then in this case we are talking about a treatment operation for bowel cancer. With this kind of surgery, along with the affected area of the intestine, nearby healthy tissue is removed to reduce the risk of a tumor re-appearing (relapse). Since individual cancer cells can already multiply by this moment and penetrate into the nearby lymph nodes, they are also removed.
The situation looks different when it comes to palliative surgery of intestinal cancer in its progressive stage (for example, with metastases that cannot be removed). Here, specialists make an attempt to prevent complications and pain associated with the tumor of the patient, while there is no chance of recovery.
If the tumor grows, for example, inside the intestine, then it can interfere with the passage of intestinal contents, which, in turn, can lead to the development of life-threatening intestinal obstruction. In this case, the surgeon will try to reduce the tumor to such a size as to eliminate the narrow passage. Palliative operations also include the avoidance of narrowing by means of a bypass anastomosis and the installation of an artificial anus (stoma).
If the fever is caused by postoperative complications, proceed with the treatment of the source of the problem. The methods of therapy at this stage are chosen by the doctor. They vary from stopping the inflammatory process with antibiotics, to repeated surgery to invasively eliminate the focus of infection.
At home, you can bring down the temperature with drugs:
It is important to remember that preparations containing paracetamol negatively affect the functioning of the kidneys and tablets and powders should be used according to the instructions, not exceeding the norm. If the operation was associated with pathologies of the genitourinary system, then paracetamol preparations are contraindicated at all.
Important! For the treatment of fever in children under the age of 16 years, use the drug Nimesil.