Bradycardia low pulse in children and adults types occurrence manifestations diagnosis treatment

The main risk factor for bradycardia is age. In older people, diseases and symptoms associated with a rare pulse occur more often than in young people.

Bradycardia is often a consequence of heart disease. Therefore, factors that increase the risk of heart disease, thereby increasing the likelihood of a rare pulse:

  • high blood pressure;
  • smoking;
  • excessive drinking;
  • psychological stress.

Bradycardia can be caused for 3 main reasons:

  1. Intracardiac blockade of the pathway.
  2. Slowing down pulse generation in the sinus node.
  3. Atrial Ventricular Blockade

The heart consists of 4 departments, or chambers – two upper (atria) and two lower (ventricles). The natural “pacemaker” that sets the rhythm of contractions is the sinus node located in the right atrium. It regularly produces electrical signals that excite every contraction of the heart muscle.

These electrical impulses travel through the tissue of the atria, causing them to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. Then these impulses enter a cluster of cells called the atrioventricular node and lies between the atria and ventricles.

After passing through the cells of the AV node, the pulses go in two ways – to the right and left ventricle. The right ventricle pumps venous blood into the lungs, and the left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood to all organs of the body.

Bradycardia occurs when these electrical signals are slowed down or blocked. Common reasons for these conditions:

  • IHD;
  • infiltrative processes – amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, lymphogranulomatosis, multiple myeloma, the consequences of radiation therapy;
  • infections: Chagas disease, diphtheria, Lyme disease, syphilis, toxoplasmosis;
  • collagenoses: rheumatism, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma;
  • taking or overdosing of drugs (beta-blockers, digoxin, verapamil, diltiazem, antiarrhythmic drugs, lithium, clonidine);
  • reflex effects associated with the vagus nerve: vasovagal fainting, reflex reaction to cough, vomiting, urination, defecation;
  • a decrease in blood potassium content or an increase in calcium;
  • hypothyroidism (decreased hormonal activity of the thyroid gland), in rare cases, hyperthyroidism; sleep apnea syndrome.

Most often, bradycardia occurs due to a slowdown in the formation of an impulse in the natural pacemaker – the sinus node. The causes of sinus node dysfunction, in addition to the general factors listed above, may be:

  • age-related degenerative fibrosis (sprouting of a node by connective tissue);
  • pericarditis;
  • correction of congenital heart defects;
  • hypothermia (hypothermia);
  • increased intracranial pressure (injuries, structural defects, hydrocephalus, tumor, stroke).

Pathology of the sinus node is more common in old age, but even in this age group it is only 5 cases per 3000 people.

This is another reason for a rare heartbeat, which is accompanied by a slowdown or interruption in the passage of the pulse between the atria and ventricles. In addition to the common causes listed above, bradycardia of this origin can cause:

  • Lenegra-Lev disease (progressive damage to the conduction system);
  • neuromuscular diseases: myotonic muscular dystrophy, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Erb myopathy, peroneal muscular atrophy;
  • myocarditis;
  • prosthetics of the aortic and / or mitral valve, complications of RFA after treatment of supraventricular tachycardia, RFA of the atrioventricular connection.

The frequency of development of far-reaching atrioventricular blockages, causing a sharp slowdown in heart rate, is 200 cases per 1 million people. Among newborns, this indicator is 1 case per 20 thousand children.

Most often, sinus bradycardia is caused by one of the following 8 reasons:

  1. Sinus node weakness syndrome (SSSU);
  2. taking medications – cardiac glycosides, beta-blockers, calcium channel antagonists, class I antiarrhythmic drugs, amiodarone;
  3. side effects of other drugs and toxins, for example, lithium salts, paclitaxel, toluene, dimethyl sulfoxide, eye drops with acetylcholine, fentanyl, clonidine;
  4. decrease in body temperature, hypothermia;
  5. obstructive sleep apnea syndrome;
  6. acute hypoglycemia (lowering blood sugar);
  7. diphtheria, rheumatic fever, viral myocarditis;
  8. the effects of bariatric surgery – stomach surgery to treat obesity.

Sinus bradycardia is characteristic of athletes, as well as for many healthy people during sleep.

When sinus bradycardia occurs with an increased tone of the vagus nerve (vagus), which slows the heartbeat, this condition can be extremely dangerous for the heart. Vagotonia may be due to such reasons:

  • myocardial infarction of the lower wall;
  • poisoning with many poisons;
  • violation of the water-salt balance;
  • hypothyroidism (decreased hormonal activity of the thyroid gland);
  • increased intracranial pressure and others.

SSSU is accompanied by the inability of the sinus node to generate or transmit impulses for heart contractions. The syndrome is accompanied by signs of oxygen deficiency of the brain (dizziness, headache, impaired memory, and so on), a slowed pulse, periodic bouts of an accelerated heartbeat. The disease occurs mainly in older people with other heart diseases and often requires the implantation of a pacemaker.

The consequences of sinus bradycardia are associated with its causes:

  • after a natural physiological reaction: with hypothermia, poisoning or an overdose of drugs, the heart rate normalizes after eliminating this factor and usually passes without serious consequences for the body;
  • in SSSU, 5-year survival is 47–69%, but it is not clear whether this is directly related to a rare heartbeat or to concomitant heart diseases;
  • if SSSU is transformed into atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation), drug treatment of new arrhythmia is possible and the need for implantation of a pacemaker is eliminated.

Sinus bradycardia is extremely rarely a manifestation of a heart disease in a child. Usually it is mild, benign and asymptomatic, and does not require treatment.

The main reason why a child develops persistent sinus bradycardia that does not disappear with physical exertion and is accompanied by clinical manifestations is the consequences of surgery for congenital heart defects.

Also, the causes of sinus bradycardia in a child may be:

  • hypothermia;
  • violation of the content of potassium in the blood;
  • increased intracranial pressure;
  • drug poisoning (lithium salts, beta-blockers, digoxin, calcium channel antagonists, clonidine);
  • hypoglycemia;
  • hypothyroidism;
  • malnutrition;
  • anorexia in adolescents (one of the most common causes, including in children who are actively involved in sports and want to lose weight).

The disease is observed even in the smallest. The question arises why in newborns the causes of bradycardia are especially pronounced. We list them:

  • autoimmune diseases of a pregnant woman and fetus;
  • disorders of the nervous system (central, autonomic) due to hypoxia during pregnancy and injuries during childbirth;
  • metabolic failures (increased calcium, thyroid dysfunction, decreased potassium in the body, failure of water-salt metabolism, hypothermia or overheating).

Cases of bradycardia in children from 4 to 6 years old occur in the presence of the following factors:

  • heart disease;
  • infections (flu, chickenpox, scarlet fever);
  • diseases of the nervous and endocrine system;
  • poisoning with drugs that slow down the heart rhythm;
  • disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system.

Causes of bradycardia in adolescents:

  • complications after surgery;
  • damage and irritation of the tissues of the sinus node;
  • problems with the autonomic nervous system;
  • enlarged internal organs;
  • overdose with antiarrhythmic drugs and cardiac glycosides.

Depending on the cause of the occurrence, two types of condition are classified.

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Sinus shape

The disease is caused by a violation of the impulse supply by the sinus node, which transmits it through the atria to all parts of the heart. If the main source of excitation of the signal to the contraction of the heart does not work correctly, not automatically (under the influence of the increased tone of the vagus nerve), then this leads to a slowdown of the heartbeat.

Heterotopic form

Bradycardia of this species rarely occurs in children. In this case, the sinus node does not fulfill its function, and another heart section serves as a conductor of rhythm. It occurs due to the defeat of the main pacemaker, tone disorders of one of the two parts of the autonomic nervous system.

What is bradycardia, explain the degree of the condition, differing in the frequency of contractions.

The light type (50-60 beats / min.) Proceeds imperceptibly, with transparent symptoms. This leads to a slowdown in the rhythm of the heartbeat, but is not dangerous to the health of the child. The disease is detected by laboratory means.

In athletes (children), bradycardia occurs due to significant physical exertion, the vagus nerve tone increases, but the form of the disease is moderate (40 – 50 beats / min.). The child needs compulsory treatment.

The pronounced form (less than 40 bpm) leads to serious problems; treatment in a hospital is required. There is a risk of hypoxia.

Against the background of these diseases of the heart muscle, fibrotic and degenerative changes occur in the sinus node or pathways, which leads to a reduction in heart rate.

The organic form of bradycardia is formed against the background of a sick sinus syndrome, which is manifested by a decrease in the generation of electrical impulses in it. This is accompanied by rare but rhythmic contractions of the heart, i.e., sinus bradycardia or alternating bradycardia and tachycardia. With a significant lesion of the sinus node, it can lose its function of automatism and stop producing electrical impulses.

Symptoms of bradycardia in children

With moderate bradycardia, blood circulation is not impaired and therefore, the patient does not have any clinical manifestations. Against the background of organic heart diseases, with a decrease in heart rate of up to 40 beats per minute or less, patients develop weakness, dizziness, fainting, or fainting. Other symptoms of bradycardia are:

  • episodes of confused consciousness;
  • transient visual impairment;
  • memory impairment;
  • deterioration of concentration;
  • unstable blood pressure;
  • chest pains;
  • labored breathing;
  • fast fatiguability.

Mild sinus bradycardia is usually asymptomatic.

Children do not complain about their health, and babies are not able to convey their feelings.

The disease is usually detected during a physical examination. But parents must also be vigilant, be attentive to the signs of bradycardia.

If the following symptoms are found, you should consult a doctor in a timely manner:

  • apathy, lethargy, powerlessness (especially after physical exertion);
  • poor appetite, nausea;
  • frequent fainting conditions;
  • pale skin;
  • dizziness and tinnitus;
  • blood pressure surges;
  • dyspnea;
  • decreased attention span;
  • chest and head pains;
  • slow heart rate.

Important! A decrease in heart rate is a sign of bradycardia. You should check the pulse of the child, count the number of heart beats on the wrist.

A pronounced form of bradycardia in children is dangerous for the occurrence of Morgagni-Adams-Stokes syndrome. The condition is characterized by sudden cardiac arrest, dizziness, loss of consciousness, pallor of the skin, involuntary bowel movements. No palpitations. After a short period of time, the patient comes to his senses.

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If you notice the first symptoms of bradycardia in children in time, turn to a cardiologist in time, who will establish the exact causes of the decrease in heart rate, then the treatment will be several times more effective, and the complications will be minimal.

Sinus bradycardia is most often asymptomatic. However, with a pronounced degree of slow heartbeat, complaints may occur and the following symptoms are determined:

  • fainting;
  • dizziness;
  • chest pain;
  • dyspnea;
  • exercise intolerance.

When listening (auscultation) of the heart and examining the pulse, the doctor determines a slow regular rhythm. In some patients with a severe degree of severity of sinus bradycardia, upon visual examination, you can see blueness of the skin, confusion, swelling on the lower extremities, increased breathing, decreased skin temperature of the hands and feet.

Knowing the symptoms, it becomes clear why bradycardia is dangerous. So, if the heart rate drops to 40 beats per minute, circulatory failure occurs. As a result, the brain and internal organs begin to experience an acute shortage of oxygen. If the patient is not provided with timely medical care, a complete respiratory arrest is possible.

If you find yourself having similar symptoms, consult a doctor immediately. It’s easier to prevent the disease than to deal with the consequences.

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During the slowing of the pulse, the brain and other organs may not receive enough blood and oxygen. As a result, the following symptoms may occur:

  • fainting;
  • dizziness;
  • fatigue;
  • shortness of breath during physical exertion;
  • chest pain;
  • confusion or memory problems;
  • poor tolerance of physical exertion.

Diagnostics

To diagnose bradycardia, the doctor evaluates the symptoms of the disease, clarifies the medical and family history, conducts a physical examination – listens to the heart, determines the pulse, etc. Additional research methods are also used:

  • Electrocardiography (ECG) is the main method for identifying and evaluating persistent bradycardia. If changes are not detected on the ECG at rest, the daily recording of the ECG is applied.
  • Daily ECG monitoring – recording a cardiogram on an outpatient basis using a small device and electrodes glued to the surface of the chest wall. Such a device records a cardiogram within 24 to 72 hours.
  • Cardiac event recorder. This device monitors cardiac activity for several weeks. When the patient feels unpleasant symptoms, he presses the button and records the ECG at this time.

Additionally, such studies with bradycardia can be prescribed:

  • transesophageal electrophysiological examination to detect sinus node dysfunction;
  • tilt test (test with a slope): the study helps to identify the relationship of vagotonia, syncope and bradycardia;
  • ECG test with a load: the doctor monitors the reaction of the pulse to physical exercises (riding a stationary bike, walking on a treadmill).

Of laboratory tests for bradycardia, the general one (for detecting infection) is used, for TSH and T4 (for detecting hypothyroidism); on the level of potassium and calcium.

If you suspect that a rare pulse is caused by hypoxia that occurs with sleep apnea syndrome, an appropriate examination is prescribed (polysomnography or, more simply, reopulmonography in combination with ECG monitoring).

During the diagnosis of bradycardia, the patient may be prescribed:

  • general blood analysis;
  • ECG
  • electrolyte balance control;
  • check thyroid function;
  • orthostatic tests;
  • stress test;
  • electrophysiological testing;
  • studying the activity of the heart using a Holter monitor;
  • bicycle ergometry (ECG recording is carried out during physical activity).

Usually, problems with the diagnosis of bradycardia do not occur. If a slow heartbeat is detected, an electrocardiography is immediately performed to clarify the situation.

Bradycardia is usually divided into:

  • sinus;
  • arising from the blockade of the excitation: between the atrium and the sinus node (sinoauricular conduction is disturbed); between the ventricle and the atrium (atrioventricular conduction is impaired).

Sinus bradycardia is characterized by:

  • lack of a venous pulse (differs in frequency from arterial);
  • inconstancy (after physical exertion / administration of atropine, the heart rate quickly recovers);
  • vagus nerve irritation (there is pressure on the eyeballs, carotid artery).

On an ECG, sinus bradycardia is determined by the presence of an unchanged P wave (precedes the ventricular complex) with normal atrioventricular conduction time (0,15-0,2 sec.).

With a disease, patients complain of:

  • lack of air;
  • slow heart rate (approximately 40 beats per minute);
  • weakness;
  • panic;
  • feeling of fear;
  • dizziness.

Symptoms of sinus bradycardia are not always pronounced.

Pathology indicates the presence of serious organic disorders. When it is dominated by symptoms:

  • intermittent heart rate (may double);
  • lack of deformation of ECG teeth.

Bradycardia due to blockade of excitation between the ventricle and atrium

With a violation of atrioventricular conduction, the following symptoms are observed:

  • heart rate is less than 40 beats per minute;
  • there is a very large amplitude of blood pressure with increased systolic pressure;
  • vagus nerve irritation, physical activity and the introduction of atropine does not affect the rhythm frequency;
  • during the inspection, the phenomenon of “cannon tone” is revealed.

Diagnosis of bradycardia is carried out by a cardiologist. To make an accurate diagnosis, the following examinations are prescribed:

  1. Anamnesis and questioning of patient complaints (weakness, dizziness, fainting, physical overload).
  2. Listening to a heart rate and pulse count by a doctor.
  3. ECG data that determine the type of bradycardia (sinus or heterotopic).
  4. Ultrasound, MRI, which are prescribed for suspected heart disease.
  5. Blood test (surrenders to detect abnormalities in the body).
  6. An x-ray is given to exclude a bruise of the chest, >

Laboratory tests may be useful in electrolyte disorders, overdose of drugs or poisoning. With an unclear reason for severe sinus bradycardia, such studies are useful:

  • the level of sodium, calcium, magnesium, glucose;
  • functional examination of the thyroid gland – TSH and T4;
  • toxicological screening;
  • troponins to exclude myocardial infarction.

To detect arrhythmias, a 12-channel ECG is used, which shows a decrease in the number of atrial and ventricular waves of less than 60 per minute. For a more accurate diagnosis are used:

  • XNUMX-hour ECG monitoring: allows you to determine the severity of bradycardia, its appearance day or night, to assess the increase in heart rate during exercise and other rhythm characteristics;
  • transesophageal electrophysiological examination, often useful for the diagnosis of SSSU.

Signs of bradycardia are detected during the examination of the patient and history taking. With sinus bradycardia, rhythmic, rare, heart sounds have normal sonority, respiratory arrhythmia is often determined.

If bradycardia is detected, the patient is referred for a consultation with a cardiologist. An instrumental examination is prescribed, which includes:

  • electrocardiography (ECG) – detect signs of atrioventricular or sinoatrial heart block, decreased heart rate. If necessary, daily ECG monitoring (Holter monitoring) is prescribed;
  • ultrasound examination of the heart (EchoCG) – the method allows you to evaluate the size of the heart, the presence of foci of degenerative and sclerotic changes in the heart muscle;
  • exercise bike ergometry – allows you to assess the change in heart rate under the influence of dosed physical activity;
  • transesophageal electrophysiological study (PEFI) – makes it possible to evaluate the features of the passage of an electrical impulse through the conducting system of the heart.

Bradycardia in children

Heterotopic form

Bradycardia in children is considered to be a decrease in heart rate below the age norm. This interpretation is due to the fact that the heart rate in children changes with age. So, in newborns we can talk about the development of bradycardia with a decrease in heart rate of less than 100 per minute, and in school-age children – below 60 per minute. Parents can suggest the presence of bradycardia in children according to the following criteria:

  • bouts of dizziness;
  • poor appetite;
  • fatigue;
  • general weakness.

In children, three types of bradycardia are distinguished:

  1. Absolute. It is characterized by a constantly slowed heart rhythm that does not change under the influence of external and internal factors.
  2. Relative. Slow heart rate develops under the influence of certain external factors.
  3. Moderate. A characteristic feature is an increase in heart rate at the time of inspiration.

In childhood, sinus bradycardia, which is congenital and acquired, is most common. The acquired form is associated with an increase in the tone of the vagus nerve, a decrease in the tone of the sympathetic department of the nervous system, or, less commonly, with damage to the sinus node. Also, the development of bradycardia in children may be associated with a violation of the advancement of the electrical impulse along the myocardial pathways.

The main causes of the development of bradycardia in children are:

  • congenital diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • diseases of the central nervous system (brain tumors, meningitis, neurosis);
  • endocrine pathologies (obesity; myxedema);
  • heavy metal poisoning, in particular lead or its salts;
  • taking vagotropic drugs (atropine, quinine);
  • overdose of certain drugs;
  • infectious diseases (typhoid fever, flu, scarlet fever);
  • asphyxia of the newborn.

In most cases, sinus bradycardia in children is asymptomatic. Only with a significant reduction in the heart rate in a child does the corresponding symptomatology appear due to a decrease in cardiac output and circulatory disorders:

  • weakness, lethargy, fatigue;
  • lack or loss of appetite;
  • dizziness;
  • dyspnea;
  • chest pains;
  • memory impairment;
  • fainting;
  • pallor of the skin and mucous membranes;
  • unstable blood pressure.

The main diagnostic symptom of bradycardia in children is a slow pulse.

Examination and treatment of children with bradycardia is carried out by a cardiologist.

The diagnosis of bradycardia is made for children under the age of one year if the heart rate is less than 100 beats per minute, for children older than one year – if the named parameter does not exceed 80 beats per minute. The causes of the disease in childhood are as follows:

  • cerebrovascular problems;
  • endocrine / nervous system diseases;
  • general hypothermia of the body;
  • increased intracranial pressure;
  • organic / congenital heart disease;
  • taking “strong” drugs;
  • lead / nicotine poisoning.

In adolescents, a slow heartbeat occurs due to the rapid growth of internal organs, an unsatisfactory emotional state, and a disturbed metabolism.

Symptoms of “pediatric” bradycardia:

  • slow pulse;
  • deterioration of appetite;
  • shortness of breath
  • dizziness;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • cold sweat;
  • lethargy;
  • blood pressure surges;
  • chest pain;
  • distraction.

Treatment of bradycardia in children

With bradycardia, children are prescribed:

  • eleutherococcus extract;
  • caffeine;
  • ginseng root;
  • ephedrine;
  • belladonna;
  • belladonna;
  • isadrine;
  • atropine.

The selection of drugs is carried out individually. A cardiologist without fail takes into account the causes of the disease, symptoms, age.

Danger of bradycardia for children

Due to bradycardia, the contractile function of the heart is disrupted, and it can no longer 100% supply the body with blood. As a result, permanent loss of consciousness, depletion / rupture of the heart muscle (death) are possible.

Usually, bradycardia develops in conditions of the mother, such as gestosis, anemia, drug poisoning. The danger of pathology is that the fetus can die. To avoid this, use drugs that improve the uteroplacental circulation:

  • glucose (intravenously);
  • ascorbic acid;
  • cocarboxylase;
  • calcium gluconate;
  • sodium bicarbonate.

They enter through the general blood flow to the child and provide an improvement in blood flow in the third round of blood circulation of a woman.

If the condition of the fetus worsens and the drug therapy used is ineffective, doctors resort to emergency delivery by cesarean section. But surgery is permissible only with a sufficient fetal age.

If acute fetal bradycardia develops during childbirth, subcutaneous administration of atropine sulfate to the woman or, if available, to the fetus is carried out.

Treatment

With severe bradycardia, accompanied by the above symptoms, it is necessary to call an ambulance. At the prehospital stage, the doctor can administer atropine, as well as provide oxygen support to the patient.

After hospitalization, it is necessary to stabilize the patient’s condition, and then begin to restore rhythm, taking into account the reasons for its slowdown.

If a slow heartbeat is caused by a removable cause (for example, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, poisoning), appropriate therapy is necessary.

If bradycardia is associated with obstructive sleep apnea, normalization of the patient’s weight is necessary, often BiPAP therapy, sometimes surgical intervention.

If symptoms occur, intravenous administration of atropine helps to temporarily increase the pulse rate. If there is no effect, temporary pacemaker is performed, and then the question of a constant stimulator is considered.

With bradycardia associated with CVS with symptoms of insufficient blood supply to organs, implantation of a pacemaker is indicated. The same tactics are used if a rare pulse occurs after an infectious disease, for example, myocarditis.

With severe sinus bradycardia caused by SCS, an atrial pacemaker (AAI) or two-chamber (DDD) type is usually established.

If possible, AAI is not recommended, since CCS is often transformed into atrial fibrillation, and the stimulant becomes unnecessary and ineffective.

Two-chamber stimulation of DDD is also preferable because SSSU is often combined in elderly people with atrioventricular blockade (the so-called binodal disease). An established two-chamber stimulator will generate impulses for contractions of both the atria and ventricles, providing a normal heart rhythm.

Treatment of bradycardia depends on the type of disturbances in electrical conduction in the heart, the severity of the symptoms, and the cause of the rare rhythm. In the absence of unpleasant symptoms, therapy may not be necessary.

The main therapeutic measures:

  • Treating underlying diseases, such as hypothyroidism or obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Change of drugs or change their dosage.

When bradycardia causes symptoms that cannot be resolved by other methods, the installation of a pacemaker (EX) is indicated. This small battery-powered device is hemmed under the skin into the clavicle. From it depart wires that are placed through the veins in the heart chambers. The electrodes at the end of the wires are fixed in the heart tissue.

The pacemaker controls the heart rate and produces electrical impulses necessary to maintain a normal heart rate.

Physiological bradycardia does not require treatment, provided there are no clinical signs of hemodynamic impairment.

In toxic, extracardiac and organic forms of bradycardia, the treatment of the underlying disease is carried out.

The development of drug bradycardia requires a review of ongoing drug therapy, discontinuation of the drug, affecting the heart rate or adjusting its dosage.

In case of mild hemodynamic disturbances against the background of moderate bradycardia, the patient is prescribed caffeine, ephedrine, belladonna, Eleutherococcus extract, ginseng root tincture. The dosage in each case is determined by the attending physician.

Active treatment of bradycardia is carried out in case of ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure, fainting, arterial hypotension and angina pectoris.

The occurrence of an Adams-Stokes-Morgagni attack (severe cerebral hypoxia associated with a significant decrease in cardiac output due to severe bradycardia) is an indication for consultation by a cardiac surgeon to determine the feasibility of installing an artificial pacemaker (pacemaker) that generates electrical pulses with a given frequency.

The child’s body grows and develops, therefore, only a cardiologist prescribes the treatment of bradycardia in children, taking into account age, anamnesis and possible complications.

The doctor determines the course of treatment, based on the data of the examination, namely:

  • blood pressure condition;
  • fainting
  • change in concentration, decrease in educational abilities;
  • ECG, MRI data;
  • causes of the disease;
  • type and degree of bradycardia.

An important component of treatment is the elimination or elimination of diseases that led to the disease.

Mild bradycardia does not affect brain function, therefore, therapy includes nutrition correction and multivitamin complexes.

  • dried fruits, bananas;
  • seafood;
  • nuts;
  • vegetable oil;
  • dairy.

You should limit the use of spicy, salted, smoked, fried foods. Food should be in small portions (5 – 6 meals).

Herbal therapy is allowed, which are prescribed only by a doctor, self-treatment for small children is unacceptable.

A set of physical exercises is prescribed to strengthen the heart muscle.

The moderate form is treated with antiarrhythmic drugs, supplemented by a diet. When Morgagni-Adams-Stokes attacks occur at a pronounced stage, a pacemaker is implanted with surgical intervention.

Treatment of bradycardia is determined by the severity of the pathology, the age and health of the patient. In certain situations, only general strengthening drugs and a diet are prescribed that provide for the rejection of sugary and fatty foods.

In acute manifestations of a slow heartbeat, medications are shown that provide an increase in heart rate. Drug treatment of bradycardia consists in taking sympathomimetics (conduct nerve impulses) and anticholinergics (atropine-like drugs).

Typically, with bradycardia, cardiologists recommend taking pills:

  • atropine sulfate;
  • ephedrine hydrochloride;
  • orciprenaline sulfate;
  • isadrine.

When choosing a specific drug, the doctor always takes into account the causative factor. If a slow heart rate is caused by a dysfunction of the thyroid gland, hormones are used. If the problem is due to the medications being taken, they are simply canceled. When revealing vegetative pathologies, the means are taken that provide vascular toning (tonsil, etc.).

In situations where bradycardia is provoked by a violation of the electrical cardiac system, a pacemaker is installed. The surgical method is used if the disease is life threatening, with the ineffectiveness of drug therapy.

Diet for bradycardia

With bradycardia, it is important to adhere to a special nutrition system. The daily diet of the patient should include:

  • vegetables (carrots, parsley, cabbage);
  • fruits (bananas, oranges, apples);
  • lean meats;
  • dairy products;
  • seafood;
  • porridge (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal).

Preferred cooking methods are steaming.

With bradycardia, it is necessary to abandon:

  • canned food;
  • fried, fatty, salty;
  • sweets, flour products;
  • cranberries, currants, cherries, cherries, apricots.

Consequences and complications

The consequences with proper and timely therapy are minimal. To do this, strictly follow all the recommendations of a specialist. A slow heartbeat in a child can cause such complications:

  • worsened well-being;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • cardiovascular failure;
  • heart ischemia;
  • ventricular fibrillation;
  • diseases of the cerebral cortex;
  • thromboembolism;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • arrhythmia of the heart, which leads to sudden death.

Bradycardia in infants is especially dangerous, since the heart beats often (3 contractions in one breath), and when the pulse slows down, blood circulation in tissues and organs is disturbed, ischemia and various diseases occur. Complications can lead to developmental delay, restriction of mobility and pose a threat to the life of the child.

When the heart rate slows down, blood circulation deteriorates, which, first of all, negatively affects the brain tissue, leading to their hypoxia and ischemia. With severe bradycardia, the patient may develop attacks of Adams – Stokes – Morgagni, clinically manifested by loss of consciousness and convulsive syndrome.

The combination of heterotropic tachyarrhythmias and bradycardia significantly increases the likelihood of developing thromboembolic complications.

Prevention

To prevent the disease, patients are recommended:

  • control heart rate, blood pressure;
  • avoid excessive consumption of foods containing salt and fats;
  • regularly do strengthening exercises;
  • more time to be in the fresh air;
  • annual examination by a cardiologist;
  • give up smoking, alcohol.

This article is posted for educational purposes only and is not scientific material or professional medical advice.

It is necessary to observe some rules in order for the child’s body to be healthy, with a strong heart:

  • timely detection and treatment of diseases under the supervision of a doctor;
  • moderate exercise, hardening, healthy lifestyle;
  • proper balanced nutrition, saturated with fiber, vitamins, minerals;
  • giving up bad habits, including smoking;
  • hanging out in the fresh air.

Bradycardia requires constant monitoring of the condition of the child. If the disease takes on a more serious form, measures should be taken immediately, because depletion of the heart muscle can be fatal.

The most effective way to prevent bradycardia is to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

To prevent heart disease, you must:

  • lead a healthy lifestyle, regularly playing sports and eating healthy, low-fat, low in salt and sugar foods rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains;
  • maintain normal weight;
  • control blood pressure and cholesterol;
  • no smoking;
  • do not drink more than 14 grams of pure alcohol per day for women of all ages and men over 65 and up to 28 grams of pure alcohol per day for men 65 years of age or younger;
  • Avoid unnecessary stress and learn how to manage your emotions;
  • be examined regularly by a doctor.

With an existing heart disease, for the prevention of bradycardia, it is necessary to take medications according to the doctor’s prescription, and if new symptoms appear or worsen existing ones, immediately seek medical help.

Sinus bradycardia is not a disease or a diagnosis, but only an electrocardiographic term that describes a slow rhythm coming from the sinus node.

It can occur in a variety of physiological conditions and diseases, often does not require treatment. Therefore, preventive measures for such cardiac arrhythmias are reduced to the observance of a healthy lifestyle and to regular quality medical examination.

Prevention of the development of bradycardia includes the following measures:

  • active and timely treatment of organic heart diseases;
  • elimination of extracardiac factors that can lead to the development of bradycardia;
  • the correct selection of drugs that can affect the heart rate, taking them strictly as prescribed by the doctor in a carefully observed dosage;
  • elimination of factors that have a toxic effect on the heart muscle.
Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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