Atrial Extrasystole on the ECG – All About The Heart

The pathogenesis of the disease is associated with the occurrence of pathological foci of excitation. Normally, the impulses are generated by the sinus node, just such a rhythm is physiological. With extrasystole, additional, pathological foci arise that are capable of generating impulses.

Pathological impulses occur against the background of normal heart contraction. Thus, extraordinary excitation is superimposed on the normal functioning of the heart. With frequent extrasystoles, the blood does not have time to accumulate in the ventricles. Accordingly, during the next reduction, the emission is much lower than the norm. Clinically, this is accompanied by signs of hypoxia of the internal organs.

Extrasystoles can occur in a healthy person. The key point that separates pathology from the norm is the number of extraordinary reductions. The norm per day should not exceed 100 extrasystoles.

Causes of pathology

The etiology of the disease is very diverse. There may be many reasons for the appearance of extrasystoles in the heart, but they are all divided into two groups – functional (transient, transient) and organic. Passing extrasystole in both healthy and sick people can appear due to such phenomena:

  • under load, especially after wearing weights, physical exertion, running, etc .;
  • under stress, psycho-emotional overload;
  • with the abuse of coffee, alcohol, energy, strong tea, smoking;
  • during pregnancy, menopause, after abortion and with other types of hormonal changes in the body, as well as during menstruation;
  • after eating or eating at bedtime;
  • against an overdose of cardiac glycosides and some other drugs.

Among organic diseases of the cardiovascular system, against the background of which constant, repeated extrasystoles are often found, the following are noted:

  • myocarditis;
  • malformations of the heart and its valves;
  • cardiac ischemia;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • dystrophic processes and cardiosclerosis;
  • hypertension (high blood pressure);
  • myocardial infarction;
  • pericarditis;
  • Heart failure (chronic heart failure);
  • pulmonary heart;
  • sarcoidosis;
  • amyloidosis;
  • hemochromatosis;
  • heart surgery;
  • violation of sodium-potassium metabolism and the metabolic changes caused by it.

There are a lot of extracardiac diseases, which can also lead to the appearance of extrasystoles in the heart. Among them – hyperthyroidism, tumors, hepatitis, intoxication and poisoning, bacterial and viral infections, allergies, VSD and other autonomic disorders, as well as osteochondrosis. Extrasystole is often noted in a dream, which reflects the dysfunction of the vagus nerve, as well as the possibility of the existence of diseases of the esophagus, intestines, prostate, uterus, gall bladder.

Extrasystoles are essentially a manifestation of diseases of various organs and systems. Most often, these are diseases of the heart, endocrine glands, various lesions of the nervous system, stress and mental disorders.

Heart diseases that are manifested by extrasystoles include coronary artery disease, cardiosclerosis, rheumatic myocardial damage, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy of the heart, simple heart obesity, amyloidosis, and also atherosclerosis.

Endocrine disorders that provoke the occurrence of extrasystoles: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (thyroid disease), disruption of the normal functioning of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (hormone-producing or compressive tumors), adrenal disease (pheochromocytoma, Itsenko-Cushing’s disease), diabetes mellitus.

Violations of the nervous regulation of cardiac activity can also cause extrasystoles. Such disorders include damage to the vagus nerve, infringement of the roots of the spinal cord, disorders of the nervous trophism of the pericardium or mediastinum.

Frequent extrasystoles can cause recurring stressful situations. Being in constant nervous tension, a person will not be able to stay healthy for a long time. Sooner or later, the body will cease to cope with large volumes of negative emotions. Often, the cardiovascular system takes a hit.

Heart diseases are found even in people who lead a healthy lifestyle, but are in a state of constant stress. The first manifestations may be causeless pain behind the sternum, as well as extrasystoles. In the future, if you do not change the situation or your attitude to it, this can turn into hypertension, angina pectoris, or even myocardial infarction.

Depression also has a detrimental effect on heart function. Mainly due to metabolic disorders of serotonin and norepinephrine. These hormones regulate many processes in the body, including cardiac activity.

Of the biochemical factors, changes in the ionic composition of the blood should be noted. Subject to a strict diet, malnutrition, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or pathologies of hormonal regulation systems, homeostasis, such a change in the number of blood microelements is possible that will affect the functioning of muscle tissue.

In the work of any muscle of the human body, many mechanisms of regulation, energy exchange, and transportation of various substances simultaneously take part. In any type of muscle, there are ion channels that carry out active or passive transport of trace elements into or out of the cell. Thanks to the coordinated work of all structures at the cellular and molecular levels, the normal operation of one or another organ can be ensured.

Myocardium is no exception. If there is an excessive amount of calcium or sodium in the blood that goes directly to the heart muscle, and potassium or magnesium compounds are less than normal, then serious malfunctions can occur in the myocardium.

In addition to cardiac manifestations in the form of extrasystoles, constipation, convulsions, coughing, shortness of breath are possible.

Sometimes the cause of extrasystoles can be an increase in the volume of circulating blood against the background of the pathology of the excretory system. An increased load on the heart muscle can affect the smooth operation of the heart.

Supraventricular extrasystole is characterized by extraordinary contractions. They are not complete, since the atrium does not have time to fill up with blood to push it into the ventricle. In a patient against the background of a violation of the heart, hemodynamic failures occur.

Single supraventricular extrasystoles practically do not appear, but their increased frequency causes a clinical picture characteristic of arrhythmia. It is customary to distinguish between an organic (pathological) and a functional (non-pathological) form of failure. The first of these is a consequence of the following diseases:

  • heart ischemia;
  • diseases of the endocrine glands;
  • developmental defects;
  • heart failure;
  • pathologies caused by infections;
  • autoimmune failures;
  • inflammatory heart disease.

Atrial functional extrasystoles are considered less dangerous and manifest under the influence of irritating factors:

  • stress;
  • vegetative failures;
  • bad habits;
  • binge eating;
  • physical and mental overload;
  • hormonal surges;
  • infectious pathologies accompanied by high fever;
  • caffeine and energy abuse.

In a newborn baby, extraordinary contractions can occur due to heart defects. In the absence of structural changes, they often indicate hypoxia (oxygen starvation of body tissues). In older children, arrhythmia can be the result of hormonal changes during puberty.

A teenager against her background usually experiences discomfort associated with the development of vegetative-vascular dystonia. The problem arises from an imbalance in the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems. She is characterized by neurological symptoms, aggravated during stress and physical exertion.

Sometimes osteochondrosis is the cause of the development of extrasystole. Due to deformation of the vertebrae and narrowing of the intervertebral disc, nerves and blood vessels are pinched. A person is disturbed by the nutrition of the brain and the innervation of internal organs, including the heart. The combination of factors causes arrhythmia.

Athletes suffer from extrasystole with an improperly designed training program. If anaerobic stresses prevail in it, then the heart does not receive the necessary amount of oxygen and is gradually depleted, which leads to the death of cardiomyocytes and the development of arrhythmia.

After overeating, arrhythmia is the result of exposure to the parasympathetic nervous system. Its predominance becomes apparent if we take a horizontal position. The heart rate decreases. As compensation, extrasystoles appear.

Timely start treatment, do not allow the pathology to worsen and go into a form that poses a serious danger to health, the patient himself can, if he carefully monitors his health, and if certain signs occur, immediately contact the clinic.

Also, the person himself, owning information about what causes arrhythmia, can adjust his behavior, change his usual lifestyle, get rid of bad habits, helping to improve health and prevent the occurrence of even a single atrial extrasystole.

Also, patients who have previously been diagnosed with coronary heart disease or have already suffered myocardial infarction, may observe signs characteristic of angina pectoris. However, in fact, they will be triggered by arrhythmia. These signs include:

  • pain of a cutting, compressive, pulling burning character;
  • lowering the temperature of the lower extremities (feeling of constant freezing of the legs and arms);
  • numbness of the arms and legs;
  • feeling short of breath;
  • a change in the shade of the skin (the skin becomes pale).

To differentiate among many other diseases, atrial extrasystole, prescribe treatment can only an experienced cardiologist. It is unacceptable to independently organize the treatment process, take pills and potions at random, since such actions can provoke not only complications, but also death.

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Causes

There are many reasons that favor the occurrence of such a pathology. They are divided into three main groups:

Medical practice clearly demonstrates that many heart diseases can provoke arrhythmia. The following cardiological pathologies are considered the most dangerous:

  • ischemia;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • hemochromatosis;
  • heart disease;
  • amyloidosis;
  • pericarditis;
  • sarcoidosis;
  • cardiosclerosis;
  • myocarditis;
  • chronic heart failure.

clinical picture

Extrasystole is accompanied by signs of hemodynamic failure:

  • general weakness;
  • dyspnea;
  • excessive sweating;
  • panic attack;
  • palpitations
  • dizziness;
  • faint state

Functional extrasystoles manifest after physical exertion and stress. Organic forms are characterized by signs of malfunction in hemodynamics, even at rest. If suspicious symptoms are found, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor in order to avoid consequences.

Classification of extrasystole

Extrasystoles are divided at the location of the pulse generator, the activity of which causes from the appearance of:

  • Supraventricular extrasystoles – if an extraordinary pulse is generated in any part of the atria, but not in the sinus node
  • Ventricular extrasystoles – if an extraordinary impulse is generated in any part of the ventricles of the heart.

The focus of pathological impulses with extrasystole can be located on any part of the conducting system. Depending on its location, the following types of disease are distinguished:

  1. supraventricular (supraventricular) extrasystole, including:
    • atrioventricular;
    • atrial (lower atrial, mid-atrial);
  2. ventricular premature beats;
  3. sinus, or nodal extrasystole (a rare species, localization of the focus of excitation – in the pacemaker).

If the patient has atrial extrasystoles, then the focus of excitation is formed in the atrium, and then transmitted to the sinus node and down to the ventricles. Rare atrial extrasystole, in comparison with other types of the disease, occurs mainly with organic damage to the heart. Most often, it develops in a prone position, often at night.

Extrasystole of the atrioventricular connection is divided into three types:

  1. atrial ailment followed by ventricular arousal;
  2. simultaneous excitation of the ventricles and atria;
  3. pathology with excitation of the ventricles, followed by excitation of the atria.

According to the ECG, reflecting the number of foci, supraventricular extrasystoles are classified as follows:

  • one focus – monotopic extrasystole;
  • several foci – polytopic extrasystole.

In frequency per minute, extraordinary contractions of the heart can be:

  • single (5 or less);
  • multiple (more than 5);
  • group or salvo (several in a row);
  • paired (2 at a time).

By the timing of the appearance of supraventricular extrasystoles are divided into such types:

  1. early – observed with atrial contraction;
  2. interpolated (insertion) – are formed between the contraction of the ventricles and atria;
  3. late – occur during contraction of the ventricles or during diastole – relaxation of the heart.

Ventricular extrasystoles account for more than 62% of the total and are divided into right ventricular and left ventricular. They are classified as follows (graduation according to Laun-Wolf):

  • the first group – less than 30 extraordinary reductions per hour (physiological, not life-threatening);
  • the second group – above 30 extrasystoles per hour;
  • the third group – polymorphic extrasystoles;
  • the fourth group – paired and group extrasystoles;
  • the fifth group – early extrasystoles.

All types of extrasystole also differentiate according to the degree of danger to humans:

  1. Benign. There are no symptoms of myocardial damage, there is no risk of cardiac arrest.
  2. Potentially malignant. Organic myocardial lesions are present, hemodynamic disturbances begin to appear.
  3. Malignant. The causes of the disease are associated with serious organic damage to the heart, the risk of death is very high.

The type of compensatory pause (the duration of the diastole period after extrasystole) with extrasystole can be complete and incomplete. The duration of a full pause is two normal cardiac cycles, incomplete – less than two normal cardiac cycles.

Name Feature
The location of the focus of ectopic (false) signals • supraventricular – the source of replacement impulses is located in the atria and atrioventricular node;
• ventricular – the focus of false signals is located in the ventricular space.
Rhythm • Single contraction (extrasystoles occur without a certain rhythm).
• Allerrhythmic extrasystole (contractions occur at regular intervals):
o bigeminia – appear after contraction;
o trigeminia – occur through 2 contractions;
o quadrigeminia – appear after 3 contractions.
Number of cuts (in a row) • single;
• steam room;
• group.
The number of foci of false signals • monotopic (monomorphic) – extraordinary contractions are the result of replacement signals from a single source;
• polytopic (polymorphic) – extrasystoles arise due to several foci of ectopic impulses.
The frequency of manifestations of extraordinary contractions (per minute) • rarely – up to 5;
• medium – up to 10;
• often – over 10-15.
  • bigeminia – each normal impulse is “pursued” by a pathological one, which creates a consequence;
  • trigeminia – arrhythmic contractions are formed with periodic accuracy, every third;
  • quadrigeminia – here the frequency is already changing by 4 contractions.

According to the focus of pulse formation, they are divided into two types:

  1. Monotopic – the site of formation coincides, the same place of origin;
  2. Polytopes – the place of occurrence is different, the impulse arises in different areas.

The difference in degree occurs according to the relationship with the last ventricular complex:

  • early degree – consider abnormalities within one hour. The permissible norm is not more than 30;
  • late degree – the permissible norm is more than 30.

Further divided into polytopic extrasystoles and paired.

Separately, there is a classification of ventricular extrasystoles according to RYAN:

  1. 1st gradation is characterized by the appearance of up to 30 extrasystoles.
  2. The 2nd gradation is manifested by the appearance of over 30 extrasystoles, which are monomorphic in nature.
  3. With the 3rd gradation, polymorphic lesions occur.
  4. At 4a gradation according to RYAN, extrasystoles are paired, but from one focus of excitation, at 4b – polymorphic.
  5. The 5th gradation is manifested by group extrasystoles.

All foci occur in the ventricles. Accordingly, the greater the gradation of the disease, the higher the risk of paroxysmal tachycardia.

By the number of extrasystolic contractions that arise one after another, single atrial extrasystoles, paired and triplets are distinguished, when three extraordinary contractions appear in a row. Triplets are considered unstable tachycardia.

Extrasystoles that occur with a certain pattern are called allorhythmia. which is divided into the following types:

  • bigeminia. in which a pathological impulse follows every normal one;
  • trigeminia. when extrasystolic contraction is one in three;
  • quadrigeminia – every fourth.

At the place of origin, monotopic – from the same site, and polytopic – from different ones are distinguished.

Extrasystole is distinguished according to the degree, focusing on the relationship with the previous ventricular complex, early and late are distinguished.

The stages of atrial extrasystoles reflect the number of early contractions occurring in one hour. in the first case, the appearance of no more than 30. in the second – more than 30, then polytopic and paired extrasystoles are considered.

The appearance of atrial extrasystole is influenced by various mechanisms.

Functional extrasystoles are caused by the following factors:

  • tobacco use;
  • chronic caffeine abuse;
  • physical overwork;
  • stress state;
  • excessive exercise;

What is extrasystole: danger, symptoms and treatment of heart rhythm disturbance

Often completely healthy people have such a deviation.

Organic extrasystole triggers:

  • dystrophic changes in the myocardium and depletion of heart reserves;
  • inflammation in the pericardial cavity;
  • increased blood viscosity;
  • cardiosclerosis of various etiologies;
  • bicuspid valve prolapse;
  • metabolic syndrome;
  • inherited and acquired defects in the structure of the heart muscle;
  • high blood pressure;
  • fever;
  • cardiomyopathies of various etiologies;
  • potassium deficiency in the body;
  • rheumatic defects;
  • digitalis intoxication;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • ailments of rheumatic origin;
  • obesity;
  • increased anxiety;
  • concomitant diseases of the digestive system;
  • dystrophic changes in the myocardium;
  • violation of the blood supply to the myocardium.

The development of toxic extrasystole can provoke:

  • feverish conditions;
  • overdose of antiarrhythmic drugs.

The category of patients with symptoms of extrasystole needs a thorough examination of the rhythm. A cardiogram is one of the main diagnostic methods for ventricular extrasystoles. The method of electrocardiography allows a detailed approach to the manifestation of disorders in the heart and to identify types of extrasystoles.

Usually, when atrial pathology appears in the cardiogram against the background of the sinus rhythm, QRS complexes with changes in the P wave and prematurely occurring QRS complexes occur. After it, a compensatory pause occurs, which means atrial extrasystole.

Nodal contractions occur in the atrioventricular node. Such changes are called supraventricular extrasystoles. They are divided into:

  • supraodular;
  • m >

Upper nodal extrasystole on the ECG is characterized by the fact that the P waves in front of the premature QRS complex rise with a negative phase. After the QRS complex, an incomplete compensatory pause occurs.

If extrasystoles are located in the middle part of the atrioventricular node, then the QRS complex does not change, and P wave, as a rule, is not available. It is buried in the complex in the form of various notches, so it seems that QRS is without a R wave.

When abnormal electrical activity occurs from the bundle of His, extrasystole is called ventricular. Ventricular extrasystoles differ from supraventricular in that they are not similar to the QRS complex of the normal cardiac cycle. Their indicator is widened high teeth. Ventricular extrasystoles are characterized by the fact that the P wave is not fixed in front of them; it is buried in the QRS complex. Ventricular extrasystole occurs prematurely and after it a complete compensatory pause is recorded.

Causes of pathology

According to statistics, single extrasystoles are found in 70% of people. and most often go unnoticed and pass on their own. Of all types of extrasystoles, atrial accounts for about a quarter of cases.

Often they can provoke stressful situations, taking strong alcoholic drinks or coffee.

Extrasystole develops with too early myocardial depolarization. With atrial extrasystole, an impulse is generated in the atria, there is a focus of trigger activity and a re-entry of excitation into the myocardial cells – cardiomyocytes.

The time interval from normal contraction to premature is called the cohesion interval, and the period after extrasystoles to the next impulse is called a compensatory pause.

Pregnancy and childbirth

Pregnant women may experience any type of extrasystole (up to 50% of expectant mothers have one or another of its manifestations). Since the body undergoes a number of major changes, including hormonal, electrophysiological, neurohumoral, heart rhythm disturbances are quite possible and even highly likely.

Treatment of extrasystole during pregnancy and lactation is quite complicated, because not all drugs are safe for the baby. Usually, anti-arrhythmic drugs are not prescribed for expectant mothers, and the emphasis in therapy is on relaxation, refusal of excessive physical activity, and prevention of anxiety and stress.

Almost all women are recommended taking vitamin-mineral complexes, which is necessary to optimize metabolic processes in the myocardium. Childbirth in a natural way with “simple” types of extrasystole is not contraindicated. With organic pathologies of the heart, pregnancy is required under the supervision of a cardiologist and childbirth by cesarean section.

Signs of atrial extrasystole on an ECG

• Typically early appearance of a slightly deformed P wave. There is no compensatory pause.

• The frequency of atrial premature beats with coronary heart disease is increased. Relatively often, atrial extrasystoles appear with vegetovascular dystonia.

Normally, in people with a healthy heart, a sinus rhythm is recorded. This means that normal physiological excitation occurs automatically in the sinus node and the heart contracts in time with the pulses generated in the sinus node. This phenomenon is called automaton of the heart.

With a sinus rhythm, normal P waves and QRS complexes are recorded at equal time intervals.

Heart rate is normal. as already mentioned, is approximately 60-80 beats per minute. With sinus bradycardia, the heart contracts with a frequency of less than 60 beats per minute, and with sinus tachycardia with a frequency of more than 100 beats per minute.

Atrial extrasystoles. a Normal (P ‘). b In violation of ventricular conduction (P “). c Blocked without QRS complex (P ‘») (rare).

Atrial extrasystole is characterized by the premature appearance of individual atrial contractions. Since atrial extrasystoles appear due to pathological excitation in some part of the atrial wall, the P wave, which reflects the occurrence of pathological excitation of the atria, is deformed and does not have a lunate shape that is normal for it, but pointed or bizarre and is located above the isoline (positive) ; sometimes the P wave is biphasic.

The remaining intervals and teeth on the ECG are normal, in particular atrial extrasystoles, do not affect the QRS complexes, since the excitation from the atria to the ventricles is not disturbed. Only with very early atrial extrasystoles, some deformation of the QRS complexes is possible due to aberrant conduction of excitation in the ventricular myocardium.

Another feature of atrial extrasystole is that the total duration of the RR interval before and after the extrasystole is less than twice the RR interval. The RR interval is the time interval between two R waves. With atrial extrasystoles, in contrast to ventricular, there is no compensatory pause.

With very early extrasystoles, the AV node can still be in the period of absolute refractoriness, and the excitation in the ventricles is blocked. In this case, the P wave is recorded, which, however, is not followed by the QRS ventricular complex (blocked atrial extrasystoles). This is a special form of atrial extrasystole.

Frequent atrial extrasystole. especially with a polymorphic P wave, it often goes into atrial fibrillation.

Single atrial extrasystoles can also be recorded in people with a healthy heart, especially with vegetovascular dystonia, while frequent atrial extrasystoles are a sign of pathology (for example, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart defects).

ECG features with atrial extrasystole. • Premature appearance of P wave on ECG • Slight P wave deformation • Lack of compensatory pause • Background heart diseases: vegetovascular dystonia and coronary heart disease • Therapy: beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, verapamil, quinidine

Various forms of atrial extrasystole. a Atrial premature beats (P ‘). b Blocked atrial premature beats (P ‘).

The clinical picture of atrial extrasystole consists of complaints related to the immediate sensation of interruptions that occur before the prescribed heart contractions and the symptoms of cardiac dysfunction.

The patient may notice a change in the rhythm of the heart. extraordinary strokes, stop periods.

Sometimes there are chest pains of a different nature and intensity.

Arrhythmia causes a lack of ejection of blood into the circulatory system, since due to a violation of the correct rhythm of contractions, the cells do not have time to fill up with the necessary amount of blood.

Insufficient discharge of blood into the small circle and large circles of blood circulation can cause dizziness due to insufficient oxygen supply to the brain. general malaise and shortness of breath.

The mismatch between the work performed by the heart and the mismatch of the blood supply to the myocardium by the coronary arteries causes ischemia of the heart tissue and anginal pain of the type of angina pectoris. Compensatory possible increase in the frequency of contractions, acceleration of the pulse.

Often atrial extrasystoles are single, they do not cause severe clinical symptoms, are recorded only with a long study of heart function.

Symptoms and signs

Sometimes the signs of the disease are visible only on the cardiogram, but clinically they are absent. Often, long walking, performing exercises, playing sports, and a strong lingering cough leads to a short-term sensation of increased heartbeat, which quickly passes. But in people with organic heart diseases, thyrotoxicosis, vegetovascular dystonia, the tolerance of extrasystoles is reduced, and the symptoms of the pathology are pronounced. They may be as follows:

  • a feeling of turning the heart in the chest, a strong push from the inside;
  • sinking hearts, failures in his work;
  • discomfort, mild pain in the heart;
  • sharp short-term pain in the apex of the heart;
  • swelling of the cervical veins, which can pass immediately after extrasystoles;
  • weakness;
  • pallor;
  • increased sweating;
  • sensations of hot flashes;
  • dyspnea;
  • lack of air;
  • anxiety, fear of death;
  • irritability, frequent mood swings.

If extrasystoles become more frequent, dizziness may join the clinic of the disease. The fact is that a high frequency of extrasystoles causes a decrease in blood ejection and provokes brain hypoxia. In the absence of first aid and drug treatment, dizziness may pass out.

Hypoxic processes in the brain can be complicated by aphasia and paresis. In some patients, extrasystole disappears after recovering from the underlying pathology, for example, after it has been possible to get rid of myocarditis and correct hyperthyroidism. But often extrasystole develops throughout a person’s life, it has to be treated constantly, sometimes the disease spontaneously disappears for a long time.

Extrasystoles that occur in a healthy person are often ignored. But it happens that the occurrence of sensations of interruptions during the work of the heart occurs against the background of a rapid heartbeat or high blood pressure. Usually, after such complex manifestations, people go to the doctor.

Extrasystolic (paroxysmal) tachycardia is characterized by a sharp increase in heart rate with constantly alternating extrasystoles. Typically, the number of strokes reaches 290-310 per minute and is accompanied by a feeling of fear, pallor, low blood pressure. Such an attack can last from several minutes to a day.

In children and adolescents, extrasystoles may be the first manifestation of such a functional disorder as vegetative-vascular dysfunction. In addition to interruptions, this disease is often accompanied by a violation in the regulation of the tone of the vascular wall – low or high blood pressure, as well as symptoms that are characteristic of the defeat of the autonomic nervous system: nausea, dizziness, sweating, hot flashes, loss of appetite, fainting.

This set of symptoms makes parents worry about the health of their child and they begin to examine it in all respects. And even if complaints of interruptions faded into the background, when conducting electrocardiography, extrasystole is most likely to be detected.

Pregnant women are also very sensitive to the appearance of extrasystoles. Indeed, in this category of people, the appearance of any symptom of a pathology of the cardiovascular system causes a feeling of fear, panic and can aggravate the situation.

In a healthy pregnant woman, extrasystoles may appear due to an increased load on the heart. Especially often interruptions occur after physical exertion or stressful situations. Therefore, it is very important for a pregnant woman to observe the regimen of the day, not to resort to physical activity without emergency, and to protect her nervous system.

There are opposite cases when, in the last weeks of pregnancy, the expectant mother does not notice interruptions in the chest, referring to fetal movements. In such cases, the first symptoms of a pathology of the cardiovascular system may be missed.

In older people, it is difficult to differentiate pathological extrasystole from physiological extrasystole only by complaints. Since this category of people can present complaints about the slightest changes in their well-being (sometimes in order to draw attention to their person).

The most reliable for their examination is the method of Holter research (daily monitoring of ECG-indicators of the heart).

In older people, extrasystoles often accompany bouts of hypertension, angina pectoris, or tachycardia.

One of the main causes of the disease are:

  • excess dose of caffeine;
  • alcohol and tobacco abuse;
  • constant emotional stress;
  • fatigue;
  • chronic lack of sleep;
  • drugs that have a side effect in the form of a heart palpitations;
  • lack of magnesium and potassium in the body;
  • excessive use of the drug digoxin.

And also some heart diseases can provoke atrial extrasystole, so you should pay attention to them:

  • general heart rhythm disturbances that are severe and can lead to a stroke;
  • endocarditis – an inflammatory process of the inner lining of the heart;
  • hypertension – high blood pressure;
  • various defects of one of the valves of the heart muscle.

The insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that in many cases it is difficult to recognize without special examinations. Rarely, the disease is accompanied by any symptoms, keeping the patient in ignorance of the danger. But still, sometimes signs may appear that indicate problems with the heart rhythm:

  • feeling that the heart misses some beats;
  • cardiopalmus;
  • chest fluttering.

In addition, more serious symptoms may occur, upon the appearance of which it is immediately worth calling an ambulance or go to the hospital yourself if the symptoms have eased:

  • increased sweating;
  • fainting;
  • feeling of missing heartbeats;
  • pallor;
  • burning and increasing chest pain;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • heart palpitations for no external reason;
  • increased heart rate, more than 90 beats per minute in a calm state.

Extrasystole can be diagnosed in

, although the symptoms are practically not manifested. Pay special attention if the child begins to complain of a strange condition, as if a heart is beating, and then a strong beat. It is like going down in an elevator, first slowly and quietly, and then a sharp jolt. As you grow older, the following are added to the symptoms:

  • systematic insomnia;
  • headaches affected by the weather;
  • periodic pain in the sternum.

The causes of atrial extrasystole can be the following diseases:

  • various heart defects;
  • myocardial disease;
  • diabetes;
  • some diseases of the thyroid gland;
  • infectious diseases;
  • prolonged mental stress;
  • increased physical activity;
  • various pathologies of the central nervous system from birth.

The severity of clinical symptoms with extrasystole is determined by the type and form of the disease. Ventricular extrasystole is often asymptomatic, especially in cases where the extrasystole is not much during the day. The supraventricular form is accompanied by clinical signs much more often. The most common symptoms of the disease are as follows:

  • Discomfort behind the sternum. An extraordinary contraction of the heart may be accompanied by a feeling of compression, soreness.
  • Unreasonable feeling of fear, anxiety.
  • Increased sweating.
  • Pale skin.
  • General weakness, increased fatigue.

Symptoms of pathology are more pronounced with concomitant autonomic disorders. For example, with vegetovascular dystonia, neurotic disorders, anxiety disorder.

With frequent extrasystoles, the symptoms of circulatory failure come to the fore. This occurs in cases where the ventricles do not have time to fill up with blood during diastole. During the next cardiac contraction, insufficient blood volume is ejected into the vessels. Clinically, this can be manifested by dizziness, darkening in the eyes, imbalance, loss of consciousness.

According to statistics, an adult has about 30-40 “extra” heart contractions per hour. The following is the daily rate for people with certain heart rhythm problems:

  • from 720 to 960 additional pulses – the norm for people who do not have any problems with the cardiovascular system;
  • from 960 to 1200 – the norm for those who have been diagnosed with polymorphic extrasystoles does not pose a threat to health;
  • 1200 and above is no longer the norm and indicates the presence of problems with the heart rate, up to tachycardia.

Today, the first two groups according to the results of the survey include 75% of people on the planet, and this does not mean that this is fraught with any serious consequences for them. However, if extrasystoles are accompanied by severe clinical symptoms, it is not recommended to postpone going to the doctor. Among these symptoms, it is first necessary to note:

  • a feeling of tremors in the chest in the region of the heart (occur with vigorous contraction of the ventricles after a compensatory pause);
  • interruptions and “fading” in the work of the heart, which are accompanied by a lack of air, sweating, fever and weakness;
  • in advanced cases: dizziness and fainting, which occurs due to a decrease in blood flow to the brain at the moments of “tremors” and “fading” of the heart.

Identification of rhythm disturbances and extrasystoles occurs using monitoring. Identified extrasystoles on the ECG, in most cases, do not manifest themselves externally for the patient, but there are critical conditions when one inferior sinus contraction occurs. Thus, in the absence of a mechanical response, the blood ejection in the heart is halved, the pulse slows down to around 25-30. A person may lose consciousness.

Typically, a single extrasystole does not cause symptoms. With frequent exposure to the pumping function of the main muscle and consecutive impulses, the main symptom is observed – a feeling of a strong blow, fading, trembling of the heart. For people who do not suffer from heart disease, extrasystole is not dangerous. Deterioration in extrasystole is determined based on the following symptoms:

  • Anxious dream. The patient often wakes up in the middle of the night.
  • Loss of performance. Fatigue occurs.
  • Bouts of weakness.
  • Motion sickness in transport or “seasickness”.
  • Dizziness with increased load.
  • Lack of air.
  • Anxiety with nervous tension. Symptoms accompanying anxiety arise: hyperhidrosis, pallor, tremor.

ECG diagnosis and types

The diagnosis is made by a cardiologist and is based on the data of a cardiogram, listening to the heart, conducting a number of other examinations, as well as interviewing the patient. The ECG accurately reveals all types of extrasystoles, reflecting extraordinary contractions of the heart, which alternate with normal contractions.

The main ECG signs of ventricular extrasystole:

  • increased duration of the ventricular complex QRS for a period of more than 0,12 s., its deformation;
  • complete compensatory pause (it is absent only if the disease has already been complicated by atrial fibrillation);
  • the displacement of the ST segment up (down) from the isoline, the appearance of an asymmetric tooth T directed in the opposite direction from the main tooth of the extrasystole.

ECG signs of atrial extrasystole:

  • the appearance of an extraordinary P-wave, followed by a normal QRS complex;
  • a change in the position of the P-wave: the tooth decreases if the focus of excitation in the middle section of the atria becomes negative if the extrasystoles are atrial;
  • incomplete compensatory pause;
  • lack of disturbances in the ventricular complex.

ECG signs of atrioventricular extrasystole:

  • a negative P wave located after the QRS complex or its fusion with an aberrant ventricular complex (extrasystoles with aberrant conduct may resemble ventricular extrasystoles);
  • lack of deformation of the QRS complex;
  • incomplete compensatory pause.

Often, a disease by a normal ECG is not detected if there are no violations during the examination period (no more than 5 minutes). In this case, Holter monitoring is prescribed, which will probably determine the presence of pathology. It is carried out during the day, while the person must conduct the usual activities, and a fixed device will record all changes in the heart rhythm.

To identify the cause of arrhythmia, you need to contact a cardiologist. He will interview and examine the patient. Based on the complaints heard and the results of auscultation, the doctor will be able to suspect a certain pathological process. To confirm it, you will need to donate blood and urine for analysis and undergo several instrumental examination methods:

  • Electrocardiography (ECG) will help evaluate the electrical activity of the heart muscle and see the signs of pathologies developing in it (ischemia, hypertrophy, aneurysm).
  • Echocardiography (Echocardiography) visualizes the contours of the heart and its departments. With its help, you can detect the presence of interruptions in the blood flow and their causes.
  • Daily ECG monitoring allows you to see how the heart works for 24 hours. A similar method is also used to evaluate the effectiveness of the established treatment regimen.
  • Bicycle ergometry shows the work of the heart muscle during physical exertion.

The results will enable the doctor to accurately diagnose and see the causative factor. In the future, it will be necessary to be examined in order to assess the effectiveness of treatment and control of the heart.

To determine arrhythmia, conducting these studies is enough. However, sometimes it is necessary to prescribe additional methods, for example, echocardiography, angiography, radiographs. Studies are necessary to determine the concomitant organic pathology that could lead to the appearance of extrasystoles.

Extrasystoles of all types can be detected by a cardiologist in the process of palpating the pulse. However, to create a clear picture of the disease, a patient with a suspected pathology must undergo an ECG diagnosis. The device will determine the source of extrasystoles and their type with absolute accuracy.

  • reducing the interval between the P wave of the main rhythm and the P wave of an additional impulse;
  • reducing the interval between the QRS complex of the main rhythm and the QRS complex of the additional impulse;
  • apparent deformation and increased amplitude of the extrasystolic QRS complex;
  • absence of P wave before ventricular extrasystole.

For differential diagnosis, they turn to the ECG method. Atrial extrasystole is distinguished by the presence of P wave, which is changed in relation to the sinus.

Unlike impulses from an atrioventricular connection. P wave precedes the ventricular complex. If the contraction occurred in the upper atrial region, P will be positive in the II lead, from the lower atrial – negative.

The undeformed QRS complex and a full compensatory pause are distinguished from ventricular extrasystole.

Therapies

If the disease is functional in nature and is not associated with any pathologies in the body, you can not fight it, since such extrasystoles do not bring harm. Nevertheless, in order to improve well-being and stop extraordinary heart contractions, it is worth bringing the diet, lifestyle, smoking, drinking coffee and alcohol to normal. For stress, it is recommended to take sedatives, homeopathy, folk remedies prepared on herbs.

In order to cure more serious forms of extrasystole, you need to find their exact cause, on which medical tactics will depend. Indications for starting therapy are the number of daily extrasystoles according to Holter monitoring data above 200, as well as the presence of complaints about the symptoms of the disease.

To eliminate the cause of the disease, correction of the problems of the autonomic nervous system, endocrine glands, medication and injection of osteochondrosis, etc. are required. With extrasystole amid overwork, it is easily corrected by an increase in rest time, a relaxing massage. With a rhythm pathology that is caused by taking medications, cancellation of drugs will help to cope with it.

The selection of antiarrhythmic drugs is determined by the type and severity of extrasystole and is carried out only by a doctor. If there are no organic lesions of the heart, then such drugs will help to remove the manifestations of the pathology:

  • Mexilen;
  • Diltiazem
  • Sotalol;
  • Cordaron;
  • Lidocaine;
  • Nivocainamide;
  • Quinidine;
  • Amiodarone etc.

If extrasystoles while taking drugs are reduced, or completely disappear, within 1-2 months the dose of the drug is reduced, and then it is completely canceled. A different situation is observed with organic pathologies of the heart, when extrasystole has to be treated for a long time or even for life. Drugs that can be recommended, in addition to those described above:

  • sedatives and tranquilizers;
  • cardiac glycos >

In addition to antiarrhythmic drugs, the treatment of extrasystole with the method of radiofrequency ablation has proven itself well. This method helps with ventricular types of pathology, as well as in the absence of the effect of conservative treatment. Severe forms of the disease require blocking seizures by installing a special device – a cardioverter defibrillator, since otherwise ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest may occur. Extrasystole disappearance often occurs after other operations – aneurysmectomy, mitral valve replacement, commissurotomy, etc.

Of the traditional methods of therapy at home, you can apply such recipes:

  1. Mix equal parts melissa (grass), heather (grass), hops (cones), hawthorn (berries and flowers), motherwort (grass). Brew a glass of boiling water a tablespoon of the collection, leave for an hour. Drink 1/3 cup infusion three times a day, adding honey to taste.
  2. 2 teaspoons of valerian root pour 100 ml of water, simmer for 15 minutes. Strain, drink 1 tablespoon of the broth four times a day.
  3. Squeeze the juice from the black radish, mix evenly with honey. Take a tablespoon of the mixture three times a day.

The international classification of diseases has systematized a variety of pathologies. In particular, diseases associated with arrhythmia are in the class “Other cardiac arrhythmias” (ICD code 10 I49). And here is the ICD code for atrial extrasystole – I49.1. After a diagnostic examination, the doctor also displays a specific disease code in the patient’s card.

The lack of treatment for such a disease, even in those cases when rare symptoms appear, is fraught with negative consequences, which are serious impaired functioning of the heart. In particular, the patient is subsequently diagnosed with atrial flutter. If the atria will constantly feel overload, atrial fibrillation occurs.

Diagnostics

Before starting treatment, the cardiologist directs the patient to a diagnostic examination, without which it is sometimes difficult to differentiate some pathologies, the symptoms of which are very similar.

During the patient’s first visit to the clinic, the doctor asks several clarifying questions in order to collect a holistic picture of the pathology that appears.

When collecting an anamnesis, the doctor will necessarily find out from the patient the circumstances and time under which the patient begins to feel the heart beats that disturb him. However, the doctor is not limited to a single medical history. The patient will undergo laboratory tests, as well as instrumental diagnostics.

Laboratory diagnostics involves the conduct of a biochemical and clinical blood test, as well as an analysis to determine the level of hormones produced by the thyroid gland.

Since atrial extrasystole manifests itself on an ECG, it is recommended that a patient with obvious symptoms of cardiac abnormalities undergo electrocardiography, which is a non-invasive method for examining the heart. Unfortunately, an electrocardiogram is not always able to capture signs of extrasystole. In particular, if the pathology develops with an increase in physical exertion, during the ECG, the signs of the disease will not be detected, since the patient will remain in a calm state.

For this reason, the patient may be assigned daily monitoring of the ECG, involving the wearing of a special device that will record the ECG throughout the day. A doctor, studying the results of daily monitoring, will be able to establish the dependence of cardiac arrhythmia on a specific type of patient activity.

To diagnose atrial extrasystole, a patient may be advised to undergo such a diagnostic examination as bicycle ergometry. The patient is offered to pedal a special simulator – a bicycle ergometer, increasing and decreasing speed, after which an ECG is performed, and blood pressure indicators are set.

Another type of diagnostic examination, during which the load is also assumed, is the treadmill test. The load is walking on a special treadmill.

Treatment

The treatment regimen is determined by the cardiologist after receiving the results of a diagnostic examination. First of all, treatment depends on the cause of the disease. Due to the fact that extrasystole often develops against the background of other cardiopathologies, doctors must carry out drug correction even in cases where arrhythmia is asymptomatic.

However, it is also likely that the doctor will not prescribe any medications at all, but will only give recommendations on the correction of the patient’s behavior and lifestyle. In particular, if, in addition to arrhythmia, no other cardiac abnormalities are observed, and heart rhythm disturbances have arisen as a result of smoking, alcohol abuse, addiction to coffee, the treatment regimen will be limited to additional informing the patient indicating all the necessary actions that he has to perform.

If the disease is characterized by a neurogenic origin, the patient will have to undergo a consultation with a neurologist, who initially prescribes sedatives. If they are not effective, sedatives may be prescribed.

Any drugs are prescribed with extreme caution, since a certain category of them can provoke arrhythmia. If atrial fibrillation is diagnosed, the patient is advised to perform radiofrequency ablation.

A young man who has been diagnosed with atrial extrasystole, as well as his parents, are concerned about the question of whether they will be taken into the army with such a pathology. There is no definite answer. If there is a symptomatology of the disease, as well as a mild form of the VSD and atrial extrasystole is indicated on the card, the probability that the call will be refused is zero.

Any disease, including atrial extrasystole, is a danger to humans, especially if there is no treatment. If the patient is interested in his speedy recovery, he must immediately visit the clinic, undergo a diagnostic examination and strictly perform all medical appointments.

Like any other disease, treatment of the disease begins with an elementary diagnosis. It is worthwhile to find out the conditions for the onset of the disease, the causes, influencing factors. After a thorough examination, the necessary examinations are carried out, which may include:

  • analysis to detect blood cholesterol and other biochemical parameters;
  • ECG – registration of pulses of heart contractions;
  • Holter monitoring – recording an electrocardiogram for twenty-four hours;
  • echocardiography is the process of obtaining a complete image of the heart structure with all the abnormalities, which will help the doctor recognize the problems and their causes, possible abnormalities and pathologies.

After the diagnosis, appropriate treatment will follow. After going to the doctor, you will know for sure whether medical intervention is required or if your form is safe. In most of the cases, extrasystole will not require treatment with medications, since extrasystoles do not recur more often and other signs and symptoms do not occur.

But if the form of the disease is recognized by a specialist as dangerous to the health and life of the patient, then a treatment regimen for the disease is urgently assigned. Also, the selection of medicines depends on the problem of the occurrence of the disease, it must be determined fairly accurately.

Basic principles of therapy

The treatment regimen should be comprehensive in order to quickly restore the usual work of the heart. Depending on the situation, it may include several effective methods:

  • compliance with the rules of a healthy lifestyle;
  • elimination of the root cause of failures in the heartbeat;
  • the use of antiarrhythmic drugs;
  • surgical intervention.

The course of treatment is supplemented with folk remedies and physiotherapeutic procedures. Surgeon assistance is usually required if other methods are ineffective.

Correction and nutrition of the patient will be affected:

  • exclude smoked, fatty and fried foods;
  • reduce consumption of sweets, preservation and salt;
  • eat up to 5-6 times a day (in small portions);
  • diversify the diet with vegetables and fruits;
  • cook by boiling, baking and steaming;
  • carry out the last meal no later than 2-3 hours before bedtime.

Antiarrhythmic drugs will return the sinus rhythm and prevent the appearance of new attacks of arrhythmia:

  • Potassium channel blockers (Amiodarone, Cordaron) prevent the entry of an element into cardiomyocytes, thereby reducing their electrical activity.
  • Medicines based on potassium and magnesium (Doppelherz Active, Asparkam) help restore electrolyte balance. Due to the effect, neuromuscular transmission improves and vascular tone stabilizes.
  • Beta-adrenoreceptor blockers (Carvedilol, Acridilol) reduce the degree of perception of adrenaline, which reduces heart rate, blood pressure and myocardial oxygen demand.
  • Calcium antagonists (“Diltiazem”, “Felodipine”) block calcium channels, due to which it is possible to expand blood vessels and stabilize the work of the heart.

Medicines are selected, as well as their dosage and form, by the attending physician. It is forbidden to independently change the treatment regimen. With the development of adverse reactions, it is necessary to temporarily stop taking medications and consult a specialist.

If it is not possible to eliminate medically severe malfunctions in hemodynamics against the background of a large number of extrasystoles, then an operation is prescribed. Its essence is to remove foci of ectopic signals:

  • Radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive intervention that allows you to cauterize sources of false impulses by inserting a catheter through the femoral artery.
  • An open heart operation is prescribed if serious correction is necessary (excision of the aneurysm, valve replacement).
  • Installing a pacemaker or defibrator will stop the bouts of heart failure. It is prescribed during the transition of extrasystole to atrial fibrillation or paroxysmal tachycardia.

A successful operation allows you to return to the normal rhythm of the heart. The recovery period depends on the type of intervention.

Treatment of pathology must begin with a change in everyday life.

The following measures are recommended to the patient:

  • refusal to use the elevator;
  • Hiking
  • restriction of the use of power engineers, too strong tea, coffee;
  • daily routine is important to carefully plan and comply, alternate full rest and work;
  • with stress and overwork, various sedatives are needed;
  • regular consultations with the attending physician, neurologist, rheumatologist, cardiologist;
  • Experts recommend the right regimen of the day for patients with extrasystole, refusing to drink alcohol, and smoking tobacco products.

A qualified doctor can prescribe such a treatment course:

  1. 1. As a rule, special treatment of physiological extrasystoles is not carried out. Based on the causes of atrial extrasystole, the specialist determines the optimal tactics of therapy. Drug withdrawal is required if the cause of the pathology is medication.
  2. 2. It is necessary to exclude stressful situations, competent intake of tranquilizers, sedatives in the treatment of rhythm disorders of neurogenic origin.
  3. 3. With organic damage to the heart muscle, severe symptoms, the use of specific antiarrhythmic drugs is necessary. Lidocaine, Amiodarone, Cordaron, Novocainamide are highly effective drugs.
  4. 4. The introduction of potassium salts parenterally into the body can be prescribed with constant arrhythmia. Cocarboxylase, Unitiol simultaneously with potassium salts are often used in case of cardiac glycoside poisoning. Calcium antagonists should be used to urgently correct atrial pulsation disorders.
  5. 5. Beta-blockers, drugs with a cardiotonic effect, reduce the strength and heart rate. The risk of complications is reduced with the appointment of Panangin – a potassium-containing drug. Nerobol has a potassium-sparing effect. In each case, the drug and its dosage are individually selected.

First aid

First of all, if a disease occurs, the effect of the provoking factor should be stopped, the patient should be seated, and sedated. Perhaps the use of psychotherapy.

Antiarrhythmics are used for frequent atrial extrasystoles and for the risk of transition to tachycardia. As first aid, bisoprolol, propafenone can be used.

In acute pathology and in patients with heart diseases, hospitalization in a specialized hospital is indicated.

Complications of pathology

As we already said, an ailment is often not dangerous for the human body, which makes the disease not so frightening. When examined, it can be found in almost every person over the age of 50 years.

Prediction of the development of the disease depends not only on the extrasystole itself, but also mainly on the causes of its occurrence and consequences. In this embodiment, there may be a danger of more complex cases of heart rhythm disturbance.

Like any other disease, atrial extrasystole requires monitoring and observation. It is worth visiting doctors for the prevention and detection of diseases in the early stages. And in no case do not self-medicate, prescribing medications and procedures for yourself. Only a qualified specialist can prescribe the real picture of the disease, the correct diagnosis, course of treatment and other features.

The prognosis for this disease is relatively unfavorable and depends on many factors. Whether this is dangerous is determined, first of all, by the form of the disease and the presence of organic pathology of the heart.

Cardiologist responses about the prognosis also depend on the variant of the disease. Doctors say that the supraventricular form of the disease in most cases is non-hazardous. Even the constant form can be controlled by taking medications.

Complications in this case are extremely rare. Doctors explain this by the fact that the causes of the supraventricular form are more often functional (that is, arrhythmia is not accompanied by an organic pathology of the heart).

The prognosis of cardiologists regarding ventricular extrasystole is less comforting. It has been proven that the presence of ventricular extrasystoles increases the risk of sudden death by several times. Also dangerous is the risk of the disease becoming paroxysmal tachycardia or other, more severe, variants of arrhythmia. However, even in this case, the prognosis may be different and depends on the progression of the disease.

Extrasystole is a form of arrhythmia, which can be both physiological and pathological in nature. The occurrence of up to 100 extrasystoles per day is the norm and does not require medical intervention. With frequent extrasystoles, especially ventricular localization, medical attention is required.

Pathology is dangerous by the transition of extrasystole to other, more dangerous forms of arrhythmia. To prevent the development of pathology and reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death, you need to undergo regular medical examinations, be monitored by a cardiologist and follow medical recommendations.

The prognosis depends on the type, frequency of extrasystoles and on the severity of the disease, which served as the cause for the extrasystole. In general, with minor symptoms and in the absence of influences on the functioning of organs and systems, the prognosis is favorable.

Frequent, paired and group extrasystoles can be complicated by the occurrence of supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation and flutter. Such rhythm disturbances can significantly affect hemodynamics and have serious consequences.

With polytopic irregular contractions of the atrial myocardium, swirling blood flow and the formation of blood clots in the cavities of the heart chambers, the occurrence of thromboembolic syndrome are possible.

In pathology, a decrease in cardiac output leads to a weakening of cerebral and coronary circulation. The consequences of such a violation are often paresis, fainting, weakening of cerebral blood supply, angina pectoris. The risk of atrial fibrillation, death increases.

Causes and risk factors

All reasons are divided into such groups:

  • extracardiac causes. smoking, excessive intake of strong coffee drinks, alcohol, insufficient concentration of potassium ions in the blood, low hemoglobin content, increased amount of thyroid hormones caused by thyrotoxicosis, toxic goiter;
  • taking medications. psychostimulants, drugs, methylxanthines, piracetam, amitriptyline, citalopram, combined oral contraceptives;
  • cardiac causes. vices. IHD (condition after myocardial infarction. Various types of angina pectoris), arterial hypertension, cardiomyopathy, infectious endocarditis. inflammatory diseases of the myocardium and pericardium, hypotrophy of the right parts of the heart against the background of pulmonary pathology;
  • idiopathic – for unknown reasons.

Risk factors in young people is drug abuse, resulting in damage to the tricuspid valve. psychostimulants, excessive alcohol intake, as well as the presence of congenital heart defects.

Middle-aged people should pay attention to the amount of coffee consumed, reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day or stop smoking, do not expose yourself to stressful situations.

Among elderly patients at risk, patients who have had heart attacks, have prolonged hypertension, which leads to left ventricular hypertrophy.

preventive measures

The best prevention of pathology is the prevention of diseases of the heart and internal organs, as well as the endocrine glands, which underlie the vast majority of cases of all arrhythmias. If possible, it is necessary to prevent exacerbation of coronary heart disease, myocarditis and other pathologies, not to bring them to a neglected state without the necessary treatment. You should also prevent any type of intoxication, drug overdose, stop smoking and lead, in general, the right way of life.

Need to abandon bad habits. from taking drugs, reducing the amount of coffee, strong tea and alcoholic beverages consumed. The ability to withstand emotional stress is important.

Young people with congenital malformations should regularly visit a cardiologist and conduct an electrocardiographic study.

Patients with coronary events should monitor blood pressure and pulse daily (it is recommended that you always have a device for measuring blood pressure and a heart rate monitor on hand), and undergo the necessary examinations in a timely manner. For the prevention of relapse, low doses of antiarrhythmics as prescribed by the doctor are necessary.

In general, with timely diagnosis of arrhythmias, modification of risk factors and prevention of the transition of atrial extrasystole to complicated forms, the disease proceeds favorably, with rare clinical manifestations.

Etmozin is a proven effective tool that helps prevent and reduce the intensity of extrasystoles. Amiloride, Triamteren – potassium-sparing drugs that should be used to reduce potassium deficiency.

If a person is completely healthy, seizures are not a disaster. Improper heart muscle contraction is a serious threat when a patient has health problems. If the patient selects drugs to normalize the heart rhythm on their own, acute heart failure may develop. Specialist consultation is necessary if seizures last long and often.

Prognosis, complications and consequences

With the timely identification of the cause and compliance with all the recommendations of a specialist, in fact in 85% of cases it is possible to avoid serious consequences of extrasystole. Heart rhythm is gradually restored and the severity of hemodynamic failures decreases.

Its effectiveness is 90-95%. In other situations, you can limit yourself to conservative treatment (medication, lifestyle correction). It is possible to do without drugs in 80% of cases of single extrasystoles.

Functional supraventricular extrasystoles are not dangerous. To stop them, it is enough to change the lifestyle and avoid annoying factors. Organic forms of failure are more pronounced and require medical treatment. It will be aimed at eliminating the main pathological process and restoring the sinus rhythm of the heart. If there is no result, surgical intervention is recommended.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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