Atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart is able to develop under the influence of exogenous and endogenous causes. Doctors distinguish about 200 various provoking factors that increase the risk of developing pathology.
Most often, aortic atherosclerosis is detected in people over the age of 45 years. The incidence rate in men is significantly higher than in women. Atherosclerotic changes in the aorta can occur under the influence of factors that can be divided into 3 groups: removable, partially removable and unremovable.
- A diet containing a large amount of animal fats;
- Smoking, alcohol abuse.
- Genetic predisposition;
- Age from 40-50 years.
Atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries develops against the background of several groups of factors that can be divided into two large groups: internal and external.
Internal factors include:
- Hereditary predisposition. Identified certain genes that play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease and atherosclerosis of the aorta.
- Overweight and obesity are key risk factors for the appearance of atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart and blood vessels of a different location.
- Hypertension and any condition with high blood pressure.
- Pathology of the endocrine system, primarily diabetes. This pathology leads to damage to blood vessels and accelerates the deposition of lipids in them.
External factors are also important in the development of aortic atherosclerosis:
- Poor nutrition with a predominance of fatty and carbohydrate foods.
- The minimum level of physical activity or their absence.
- Bad habits: smoking and alcohol abuse.
- Frequent stressful situations and depression lead to the “nervous” mechanism for the appearance of symptoms of coronary artery atherosclerosis.
It is important to note that atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart does not occur as a result of exposure to the human body of any one factor, but is a multifactorial disease. At the same time, a combination of causes leads to the onset and maintenance of the disease, which makes it difficult to choose the optimal treatment tactics.
Many people care about what is atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart? This is a pathological process characterized by the accumulation of underoxidized lipids in the vessel wall, leading to the development of an inflammatory reaction in it and a decrease in the diameter of the lumen of the arteries. The latter leads to the development of insufficiency of blood supply to organs and the appearance of various clinical symptoms.
Stenosing atherosclerosis occurs due to the atherosclerotic process of various parts of the arteries.
Strokes and massive thromboses can occur in people due to obstruction of blood flow.
Risk factors for developing the aforementioned disease include:
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Arterial hypertension.
- Diabetes mellitus of the first and second types.
- Overweight up to obesity.
- Alcohol abuse.
- Men get sick four times more often than women.
- Violation of diet.
- Passive lifestyle.
- Frequent stress.
In its course, stenosing atherosclerosis goes through three phases: the progression phase, stable and the reverse regression phase.
The development of atherosclerotic lesions of the main arteries is due to the action of three factors:
- Violation of fat metabolism. When the system of cholesterol synthesis and transportation fails in the body, excesses of this substance begin to be deposited on the walls of blood vessels. The trigger mechanism can be somatic diseases, unbalanced nutrition, obesity.
- Hereditary predisposition. If stenosing atherosclerosis has been diagnosed in close relatives, the likelihood of this disease increases several times.
- Decreased elasticity of the vascular walls. Cholesterol plaques cannot form on a smooth and healthy surface. The following disorders contribute to damage to the vascular wall: diabetes mellitus, a sedentary lifestyle, and smoking.
If you have one or more of the factors listed above, you need to pay special attention to your own health, more often undergo preventive examinations.
- Clinical picture of the disease
- Causes of Aortic Atherosclerosis
- Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels and signs of damage to the vessels of the lower extremities
- Symptoms of Aortic Atherosclerosis
- Principles of Prevention and Treatment
- Operative therapy
- Drug use
- What are the consequences of atherosclerosis?
- Preventive measures
Clinical picture of the disease
In the early stages, atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart proceeds in a latent form. Usually the first signs of the disease are noted by middle-aged people.
Therefore, doctors recommend an annual examination to all people who have crossed the 35-year mark. However, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia can lead to an earlier development of symptoms of coronary artery atherosclerosis.
The first symptoms of the disease include the following symptoms:
- Soreness in the chest area radiating to the back or left shoulder;
- The appearance of shortness of breath at the onset of pain. Sometimes patients are not able to be in a horizontal position due to respiratory failure;
- Nausea and vomiting.
The listed symptoms of coronary artery atherosclerosis are not specific, so they are often confused with other pathologies of the cardiovascular system. This greatly complicates the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Causes of Aortic Atherosclerosis
Consider what is atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart, and why it develops. The main cause of the pathology is dyslipidemia. This is the name of a condition caused by a violation of lipid metabolism. It indicates an imbalance of fatty substances in the body.
Lipids penetrate the artery, spots containing cholesterol appear on its walls. They grow in all directions, atherosclerotic plaques occur. Fibrous tissue forms at the lesion sites. An artery loses its elasticity, its walls become denser, and the vascular lumen narrows.
Cholesterol plaques can break down. All these processes cause a slowdown in blood circulation, lead to the accumulation of platelets, the development of thrombosis. As a result, the artery narrows even more, oxygen starvation develops.
Poor blood supply to the heart causes its dysfunction.
Atherosclerosis in the modern world every year increases its specific weight among all cardiovascular diseases. This is due to various reasons, and, first of all, a change in the way of life of people, the environmental situation and, oddly enough, an increase in the level of well-being, because the daily menu of a person of the current generation to our ancestors could only dream or dream in a dream. True, I managed to try some “cholesterol goodies” on Easter and Christmas.
Despite the merciless struggle of the global health communities, atherosclerosis does not give up, and citizens themselves help him in this, since in most cases they do not follow the recommendations of cardiologists very much.
It should be noted that in terms of atherosclerosis there is no particular reason for sedation at a young age, it simply should not be confused with arteriosclerosis (arteriocalcinosis), when the connective tissue grows with age, and calcium salts are deposited, and as a result, all layers of the arterial wall are compacted, and the vessel loses its functional abilities.
Atherosclerosis chose the walls of large and medium arterial vessels as the place of its justification. By atherosclerotic process, we mean deposits and accumulations of low and very low density lipoproteins (LDL, VLDL – “harmful” fractions of cholesterol) and the fats contained in them in the soft and elastic endothelium (inner lining of the vessel).
The mechanism of development of atherosclerosis is quite complex, it is based on a violation of the processes of lipid metabolism and lipoprotein complexes that change the structural structure of the arterial endothelium, so pathogenesis will be more convenient to present in a schematic form:
- At the initial stage, among the complete external well-being in the intima, structural and cellular changes begin that cause a response of the connective tissue – proliferation;
- LDL passing with blood flow are captured by cells of swollen intima and deposited on the inner membrane of the arterial vessel;
- An atheromatous plaque forms, the basis of which is LDL. The development of the atherosclerotic process along the length of the vessel is called non-stenotic atherosclerosis, which is characteristic only for the initial stage and is usually not considered a diagnosis;
- As the accumulation of harmful cholesterol components, plaques begin to rise above the surface of the intima, move into the lumen of the vessel and thus narrow it.
This is already stenotic atherosclerosis, which threatens to subsequently block the vessel, since the lumen of the artery continues to decrease over time, until it is completely closed. Interestingly, narrowing to 70% may go unnoticed, and the process is asymptomatic. Only occlusion of the vessel, leading to acute ischemia (as a variant of the consequences of stenosing atherosclerosis), can become a “thunder in the clear sky”;
Virtually all arterial vessels of large and medium caliber are susceptible to atherosclerotic changes. Features of the formation and course of the pathological process, its complications will be considered in other sections of the article. However, first it is worth paying attention to such important points as the causes of atherosclerosis and its risk factors.
The circumstances creating the conditions for the risk of atherosclerosis created the need for its classification, taking into account various factors. This made it possible to somewhat systematize the forms of atherosclerosis, its phase and stage. Forms of atherosclerosis are usually considered from the point of view of their origin, that is, the main cause of atherosclerosis.
Hemodynamic variants of the atherosclerotic process are due to:
- Arterial hypertension;
- Angiospasm permanently arising for various reasons, for example, with hypertensive crises, prolonged nervous strain or in the presence of such a bad habit as smoking;
- Vasomotor disorders caused by another pathology (vegetative-vascular dystonia, cervical migraine, vertebral artery hypoplasia, cervical osteochondrosis, etc.).
Metabolic forms of atherosclerosis are provoked by other situations:
- Genetic history (hereditary-constitutional disorders of fat metabolism: cholesterol diathesis, xanthomatosis);
- Alimentary disorders caused by excessive consumption of fatty foods and carbohydrates, resulting in obesity, which provokes an increase in cholesterol and its fractions in the blood serum;
- Hypodynamia, which often leads to the accumulation of excess weight;
- Endocrine pathology (diabetes mellitus, thyroid function deficiency, imbalance of sex hormones);
- Lesions of the kidneys and liver (nephrotic syndrome, fatty hepatosis, cholelithiasis – gallstone disease, etc.);
The risk factors, and sometimes the causes of atherosclerosis, as mentioned above, include gender: the disease often affects the vessels of males. In addition, the presence of only one provocateur is a rare case, they are more often present by the “company”, thereby exacerbating the situation and increasing the likelihood of developing multifocal atherosclerosis, which occurs as a multivascular atherosclerotic lesion with its characteristic consequences.
The forms of atherosclerosis, where hemodynamic and metabolic provocateurs are collected, are called mixed, they constitute the bulk of patients spoiling the statistics of strokes, heart attacks and not only them .
The process of accumulation of cholesterol complexes and the formation of atheromatous plaques at first does not give signs of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, affecting, in general, all the vessels of the body, he gives some special preference. From the point of view of pathogenesis, this can be assumed based on the characteristic signs of certain pathological conditions.
The preferred localization of the atherosclerotic process can be indicated by the clinical manifestations of coronary heart disease, unless another reason for its formation (coronary and non-coronary origin) has been proven, or typical symptoms of atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities. Thus, depending on the predominant localization of the process, these types of atherosclerosis are distinguished:
- Atherosclerosis of the vessels of the heart;
- Atherosclerosis of the aorta;
- Cerebral arteriosclerosis;
- Atherosclerosis of the renal arteries;
- Atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and its branches;
- Atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities.
However, as you know, chronic atherosclerosis is a systemic disease and this often leads to the fact that different groups of vessels, for example, coronary and cerebral, are affected in one organism (up to 40% of patients already have this combination). This type of atherosclerosis is called multifocal. Multifocal atherosclerosis is more dangerous, it requires complex therapy, aggravates the prognosis and affects the incidence of postoperative complications, and complications of atherosclerosis in this case are also very dangerous (myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular accident).
The manifestations of some kind of pathology in the body, and even more so the direct signs of atherosclerosis, go unnoticed for quite some time, however, the pathological process is underway, as evidenced by lengthy and constant clinical studies in this area. Thanks to them, the following stages of atherosclerosis were identified in the formation of pathological changes:
Unpredictable in time, sometimes significant in duration, a h >
In addition, 3 phases are distinguished in the development of atherosclerosis: active or progression, stabilization and regression phases.
Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels and signs of damage to the vessels of the lower extremities
Atherosclerotic changes are most often found in the abdominal region. Deposition of cholesterol can lead to aneurysm, and after a while – to its stratification. Large thromboses may also occur. Damage to the abdominal aorta can lead to blood clots in the kidneys, intestinal vessels, and femoral artery.
With stenotic atherosclerosis of the aortic arch, complaints arise of frequent dizziness and fainting.
If the thoracic aorta is affected, then patients feel pain of a pressing or burning nature behind the sternum, which gives in both hands, neck, back, epigastrium, increases with physical exertion and stress.
Most often, the anterior, middle, posterior cerebral, vertebral, and internal carotid arteries are affected.
Symptoms of Aortic Atherosclerosis
Quite often there are atherosclerosis of the aorta in the root, arch, as well as lesions of the coronary arteries. All of them can provoke the development of fatal complications.
Atherosclerosis of the aorta in the arch region is characterized by severe pain. The pain radiates to the left hand, shoulder, shoulder blade. It increases with stress, physical exertion. Unlike an attack of angina pectoris, the pain syndrome cannot be eliminated by taking nitroglycerin.
The development of heart failure can be suspected in the presence of shortness of breath, suffocation. The arc increases in size, presses on the recurrent nerve and on the trachea, which is manifested by dysphagia (difficulty swallowing).
Aortic atherosclerosis, localized in the abdominal region, is characterized by abdominal pain that does not have a clear localization. They appear after eating, and after a few hours disappear. Patients may complain of a violation of the digestive tract: bloating, constipation, diarrhea. Appetite can be reduced, a person is losing weight.
Lesions in the area of separation into the right and left iliac arteries lead to poor blood supply to the legs. Typical signs of pathology are: cooling, numbness, swelling of the extremities. Muscle tone decreases, ulcers form on the toes, feet.
Vascular damage to atherosclerosis in the initial stages is often asymptomatic. However, a more severe degree of development of the disease is noticeable in clinical manifestations. For example, atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is most often manifested by sternal pressing or burning pain, nausea, vomiting and shortness of breath. All types of atherosclerosis are accompanied by weakness in the whole body and limbs. Congestion of cerebral vessels can be recognized by the following symptoms:
- memory loss;
- frequent mood swings;
- speech and vision disorders.
The first stage of atherosclerosis of the lower extremities is characterized by cold feet, a burning sensation and tingling sensation, pale skin on the fingers and feet. At the following stages, intermittent claudication, leg pain, atrophy of the calf muscles, loss of hair on the legs, thinning of the skin, thickening of the nails, and cracks in the fingers may appear. At the last stage of vascular damage, edema and trophic ulcers appear.
Signs of aortic atherosclerosis most often occur after 60 years. Among them:
- high blood pressure;
- burning chest pains;
- difficulty swallowing.
In addition, damage to the abdominal part of the aorta causes disruption of the digestive tract, renal failure and damage to the lower extremities.
Therapy for atherosclerosis most often involves the control of blood pressure, cholesterol and resistance to stress. In more complex cases, it may be necessary to perform an operation to remove the dangerous part of the vessel or to install a cylindrical frame inside it to prevent its narrowing.
Do not ignore the signs of a dangerous disease. Remember that stenotic atherosclerosis can lead to a stroke or a heart attack, a heart attack, or gangrene of the lower extremities. Regularly undergo an examination and do everything possible so that the cholesterol plaques do not clog the cavity of your blood vessels or to slow down the progress of the disease.
Stenosing atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries and aorta, differ in their manifestations.
Damage to the heart vessels leads to the development of coronary heart disease, manifested, as a rule, by various forms of angina pectoris. The main symptoms are as follows:
- Pain in the sternum of a compressive nature, with burning, occurring against a background of physical or emotional stress. Similar pains disappear within 15 minutes on their own or on the background of taking nitroglycerin. Sometimes pain can be given to the left arm, back, or shoulder.
- During physical exertion and during a pain attack, the patient experiences severe shortness of breath associated with a lack of air and impaired heart function.
- With pain in the heart, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness may occur.
As a rule, such symptoms indicate the development of angina pectoris. However, if the pain syndrome persists for more than an hour or its intensity increases, signs of heart failure appear, this may indicate the development of myocardial infarction with damage to the heart muscle. Myocardial infarction is a life-threatening condition that can lead to the death of a patient within a few tens of minutes. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most important cause of the development of damage to the heart muscle.
Pain attacks are characteristic of atherosclerotic lesions of the heart vessels and are one of the most common symptoms in cardiovascular diseases.
For a long period of time, atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries may not be detected. The aorta is the largest vessel in the human body, and for a long time can narrow without any clinical manifestations. However, there are a number of characteristic symptoms that can indicate this disease.
- Damage to the thoracic aorta very often leads to a violation of the blood supply to the heart and brain. This occurs as a result of involvement in the process of coronary (blood supplying to the heart) and cerebral vessels. The manifestations of this situation are as follows: there are “angina pectoris” pains in the heart, which can also be observed with atherosclerosis of the aorta and aortic valve. Pain can be given along the spine, on the front surface of the chest, as well as in the arm. At the same time, in contrast to angina pectoris, the pain is not paroxysmal in nature, but remains constant, sometimes for several days in a row. Patients often have high blood pressure, general weakness and dizziness. Due to impaired blood flow through the cerebral arteries, patients may faint without any reason. All this is associated with atherosclerosis of the branches of the aortic arch and itself.
- With atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta, the symptoms are different. The nature of the pain changes to aching, and the pain itself is localized in the stomach or umbilical region. In many patients, bloating and dyspeptic symptoms in the form of constipation are noted. At the same time, patients lose body weight as a result of impaired blood supply to the intestines and absorption of nutrients.
Symptoms of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries and aorta indicate a significant lesion of the vascular bed.
Diagnosis of aortic atherosclerosis includes: examination of the patient, history taking, instrumental, laboratory tests. At the reception, the doctor listens to the patient’s complaints, measures blood pressure, estimates body weight, determines the estimated risk factors, reveals signs of cardiac aortic atherosclerosis.
Laboratory diagnostics are being carried out. The patient must take a blood test to assess the concentration of high and low density lipoproteins. The level of triglycerides, cholesterol is determined.
To assess the condition of the heart muscle in aortic atherosclerosis, an ECG is performed. To study the state of the vessels, angiography, aortography are used, which allows to identify the degree of damage, the presence of calcification, aneurysms. Coronary arteries are examined using coronary angiography.
Ultrasound diagnostics make it possible to identify:
- Deterioration of the main blood flow;
- Decreased vascular lumen;
- The presence of formations (plaques, blood clots);
- The appearance of aneurysms.
Blood flow velocity in aortic atherosclerosis is also determined by rheovasography.
To identify aneurysms, not only ultrasound, but also other methods (MRI, CT) are used. To detect protrusion of an artery in the chest, apply computed tomography, x-ray. The most complete picture of the localization, extent, and diameter of the aneurysm gives aortography.
To diagnose the disease using ultrasound diagnostics. Echographic signs of non-stenotic atherosclerosis are best seen with triplex scanning. A longitudinal arrangement of cholesterol plaque is noted, the blood flow rate is slightly reduced, collateral circulation is developed and provides good hemodynamics in the tissues.
Echographic signs of stenosing atherosclerosis have more vivid manifestations. The transverse location of the plaque covers the lumen of the vessel by more than 70%, the blood flow rate is critically significantly reduced, the blood circulation in the segment is provided by the collateral arteries better than the main one.
The most important thing in the diagnosis of diseases of the cardiovascular system is the careful collection of all human complaints, the characteristics of their occurrence (time of occurrence, what can be associated with their appearance, under what conditions the symptoms go away), as well as the history of life and illness. Great attention needs to be paid to concomitant diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity.
Symptoms and treatment of the disease may also depend on biochemical changes in the blood. In most patients, changes in the lipid profile are noted: the number of high-density lipoproteins decreases, preventing lipid deposition in the vessel wall. However, cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides are increasing.
For an accurate diagnosis, the following methods are most often used:
- An electrocardiogram allows you to evaluate the work of the heart and identify signs of insufficient blood supply, which may be a factor in the development of angina pectoris.
- Daily ECG monitoring is aimed at identifying hidden cardiac arrhythmias, as well as ischemia associated with various physical or emotional factors.
- Removing an ECG with a load (led or treadmill test) allows you to detect latent myocardial ischemia, which manifests itself only in severe physical activity.
- Angiography is a golden tool in the diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis, as it allows you to visualize the lumen of the heart vessels and assess the degree of narrowing.
- Computed and magnetic resonance imaging is used to search for complicated atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta with their stratification, the formation of aneurysms or the imposition of thrombotic masses, which are of great danger due to possible complications.
Only comprehensive diagnostic measures will reveal the causes of atherosclerotic lesions of the vessels of the heart and aorta, as well as select the optimal treatment.
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out exclusively in specialized medical facilities.
The correct diagnosis can only be made by an experienced doctor.
In the process of diagnosis, instrumental and laboratory examination methods are used.
For the diagnosis of atherosclerosis carry out:
- coronarography to detect the degree of stenosis and damage to the coronary arteries;
- angiography – to assess vascular patency;
- lipidogram – shows the amount of cholesterol and blood lipids;
- coagulogram – helps to see the state of blood coagulation;
- ultrasound examination of blood vessels.
Echoes of stenosing atherosclerosis include narrowing of the lumen of the cerebral and extracranial arteries, plaques and blood clots, impaired integrity of the inner lining of the vessel, and the possible presence of aneurysm.
The treatment of atherosclerosis involves the correction of nutrition. “Mediterranean diet” is recommended for patients: fish, seafood, low-fat poultry, vegetable oils, bran, bread, greens, fruits, vegetables, legumes. But it is better to abandon animal fats and red wine. In addition to diet, you need to play sports, stop drinking and smoking, get your body in shape.
All patients are prescribed medications, such as:
- Statins (Lovastatin, Atorvastatin);
- Fibrates (Phenobibrate);
- Anion exchange sequestrants (cholestyramine);
- A nicotinic acid.
These drugs lower the amount of low-density lipoproteins in the blood, reduce inflammation in the vessels and prevent the formation of new plaques.
With high blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs are used – diuretics, calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, sartans.
In order to timely identify the disease and start its therapy, all people after 40 years of age are recommended by doctors to undergo a routine examination once a year. It is enough to take a blood test for the following indicators:
- cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides;
These parameters may indirectly indicate a violation of protein-lipid metabolism, which provokes the development of pathology.
Stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain, heart or lower extremities is easy to diagnose. For this, the patient is prescribed a comprehensive examination, which includes the following procedures:
- intravenous / arterial angiography of blood vessels using contrast;
- Doppler study;
- triplex scanning.
Based on the results of the examination, the doctor can confirm the preliminary diagnosis. After this, the patient is prescribed treatment.
Principles of Prevention and Treatment
Timely treatment of atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart can improve the quality of life and prevent the development of complications. First of all, you need to adjust your lifestyle.
With aortic atherosclerosis, the following products should be preferred:
- Low-fat or non-fat dairy products;
- Products containing whole grains.
Good nutrition and exercise will help bring weight back to normal. This is very important to reduce the risk of aortic atherosclerosis complications.
Regular physical activity will help lower your bad cholesterol. It is also necessary to give up smoking, drinking alcohol.
Modern drugs perfectly eliminate the symptoms of aortic atherosclerosis. The patient may be assigned the following groups of drugs:
- Statins (Mevacor, Zokor, Prakhavol, etc.), which lower the concentration of cholesterol in the blood by reducing its synthesis in the body. Of the side effects of drugs, liver disorders can be noted.
- Nicotinic acid and its derivatives (Acipimox, Enduracin). Increase the concentration of high density lipoproteins in the blood, reduce the level of triglycerides, cholesterol. The most common side effects are: vasodilation, rash, redness of the skin, gastrointestinal tract disorders.
- Sequestrants of bile acids (“Kolestipol”, “Kolesevelam”). The mechanism of action is the combination of cholesterol with bile acids and the removal of these substances from the body. Drugs have very few side effects, these include constipation, nausea, flatulence, heartburn.
- Fibrates (Bezafibrat, Gemfibrozil, Bezalip). Suppress the synthesis of triglycerides in the liver, accelerate their removal from the blood. Side effects: vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, negative effects on the nervous system.
- Beta-blockers (Metoprolol, Propranolol, Anaprilin). They help to eliminate pain, chest discomfort, reduce pressure. Among the side effects, the following can be noted: a decrease in heart rate, toxic effects, a decrease in blood sugar, exacerbation of asthma.
With atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart, traditional medicine recipes are used only as an auxiliary method of treatment. A good remedy is garlic. Take 300 g of peeled, minced garlic, place it in a 0,5 L glass jar and add vodka. The tool can be used after 3 weeks. Drink daily 20 drops dissolved in 100 ml of milk.
You can mix garlic juice with honey in a ratio of 1: 2. You need to use it 4 times a day, preferably before meals. Such a recipe is also used. Add the juice of 1 lemon and orange to 1 cup of boiled water, mix and drink. Take the product once a day (in the morning on an empty stomach).
As a strengthening agent, it is good to use fresh cucumbers, raw beets or drink freshly squeezed juice from them (daily, 0,5 tbsp.). These vegetables contain a lot of potassium, which positively affects the heart and blood vessels.
Freshly torn plantain leaves are also used to treat aortic atherosclerosis. Wash them, grind, squeeze the juice. Mix it with honey in equal proportions. Cook over low heat for 15-20 minutes. Drink 1 table daily. spoon. Store the product in the refrigerator.
Symptoms of aortic atherosclerosis can be alleviated with rosehip tincture. Fill with fruits 2/3 of the glass jar (0,5 l), pour vodka. Leave for 2 weeks, stirring daily. Then strain. Take 20 drops daily. (on a piece of sugar).
The following scheme is also effective: start taking 5 drops, increasing the dose by 5 drops every day. The maximum amount should be 100 cap. Then gradually reduce the dose of 5 drops per day to the initial five.
To prevent the formation of new plaques and reduce the existing ones, they use a diet and medications, but surgical treatment is necessary for the highly effective treatment of stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries. Critical stenosis is corrected using endovascular stenting or bypass surgery, regardless of the location of the pathological process.
Treatment of atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart should be carried out after a thorough examination under the supervision of a cardiologist and include both medications and non-medications. How to treat atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary vessels?
In the fight against atherosclerotic diseases, the most important is the change in lifestyle and diet.
- All patients are advised to increase the amount of physical activity and bring sports to at least three times a week.
- It is necessary to stop smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages.
- All fatty foods, confectionery and bakery products, smoked and salty dishes, semi-finished foods, fat sour cream, yogurt, etc. are excluded from food.
- It is recommended to eat low-fat varieties of meat (poultry, fish), fruits and vegetables, as well as low-fat varieties of sour cream, cottage cheese and milk.
Such changes in lifestyle and nutrition can normalize fat metabolism in the body and reduce the influence of provoking factors. It is important to note that treatment with folk remedies has no proven effectiveness and cannot be recommended as the only means of therapy.
Treatment of atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary vessels is based on the use of drugs aimed at normalizing blood pressure and correcting concomitant diseases. For this purpose, drugs of the following pharmacological groups are used:
- Statins (Rosuvastatin, Lovastatin, etc.) block the liver enzyme responsible for cholesterol synthesis. This leads to a decrease in its concentration in the blood, and also reduces the level of low density lipoproteins, increasing similar high density molecules, which reduces the atherosclerotic process in the vessels and reduces the risk of complications.
- Fibrates (Atromid, Gevilan) also normalize the lipid profile of the blood and inhibit the progression of the disease.
- Medicines that bind fatty acids (cholestyramine, etc.) disrupt the process of emulsification of fats and their absorption, which leads to a decrease in cholesterol and low density lipoproteins in blood plasma.
- Niacin, cholesterol absorption inhibitors are also actively used in clinical practice.
- In case of hypertension, patients are shown to use angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (Enalapril, Enap) and other antihypertensive drugs.
- In case of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin injections and lipid-lowering drugs are prescribed.
Treatment of atherosclerosis of the heart and aorta should contain both medications and non-pharmacological effects (diet, physical activity, etc.). Such an approach can cope with the progression of the disease and the development of serious complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, etc.).
The tactics of treating atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart is determined by the stage of the disease. With timely diagnosis of pathology, therapy involves a change in lifestyle:
- Rejection of bad habits;
- Normalization of nutrition. They recommend drastically reducing the consumption of animal fats, abandon fried foods and sweets. Fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals, dairy products should be introduced into the diet;
- Regular moderate physical activity recommended by a cardiologist. This will help normalize metabolic processes;
- Normalization of weight.
At the initial stages of the disease, conservative treatment will help eliminate the symptoms and slow down the pathological changes in the vessels. The drugs of choice are statins, which effectively lower cholesterol in the bloodstream by inhibiting the synthesis of the lipid compound by hepatocytes.
Treatment of coronary artery atherosclerosis involves the use of drugs that reduce the oxygen demand of the heart muscle.
This helps protect the heart, reduce the severity of ischemia. For this purpose, drugs from the following groups are widely used: beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, antiplatelet agents.
Treatment of stenosing atherosclerosis largely depends on at what stage of the development of the disease the patient went to the doctor. At the initial stage, in addition to drug therapy, it is necessary to try to change the lifestyle. It is important to abandon bad habits, try to relax more. Otherwise, taking medication will only slow down the progression of the disease, but will not stop it completely.
Without fail, the doctor prescribes a sick diet (table number 10), rich in plant foods. It is usually recommended for patients with hypertension or heart failure. If you adhere to such a diet, you can not only reduce the amount of cholesterol consumed, but also remove its excess from the body.
Patients with a diagnosis of “stenotic atherosclerosis of the lower extremities” treatment should be supplemented with sports. Preference should be given to Nordic walking or swimming. At the first signs of fatigue in the legs, you must immediately rest, without overloading the body.
Atherosclerosis stenosing in an advanced stage requires surgery. Surgical intervention allows you to restore normal patency of blood vessels, remove cholesterol plaques. For this purpose, shunting, stenting or angioplasty is performed. The listed manipulations are carried out both endoscopically and openly using general anesthesia.
The treatment of atherosclerosis cannot be imagined without the use of medications. Typically, patients with such a diagnosis are prescribed the following groups of drugs:
- Disaggregants. Prevent the formation of blood clots in the bloodstream.
- Antispasmodics. Improve blood circulation throughout the body.
- Medicines to normalize the rheological properties of blood. First, drip administration of the drug is prescribed, then it is replaced by the tablet form.
All medicines are selected for each patient individually. Be sure the doctor must take into account the stage of the disease and its form.
What are the consequences of atherosclerosis?
Coronary atherosclerosis can lead to the development of acute or chronic vascular insufficiency. The chronic form of pathology involves a gradual narrowing of the vessel. As a result, atrophic and hypoxic damage to the myocardium occurs, the development of ischemia is possible.
In acute failure, heart attacks develop. This complication can be fatal if aneurysm rupture occurs. Atherosclerotic vascular damage can contribute to the development of peripheral arterial disease, stroke, ischemic transient attacks.
The prognosis of coronary atherosclerosis is determined by how clearly the patient complies with the recommendations of the cardiologist, follows a diet, a healthy lifestyle. This allows you to restrain the further progression of the pathology, to maintain good health. If the patient has formed foci of necrosis, acute blood flow disturbance, then the prognosis is not favorable.
Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is a chronic vascular pathology. The disease leads to malnutrition of the myocardium, therefore, it can cause the development of serious complications.
However, proper nutrition, a healthy lifestyle will help prevent and slow down the pathology.
Atherosclerosis of the aortic heart often causes aneurysm (protrusion of the artery wall). Its consequences: Impaired myocardial function (heart failure). It manifests itself as shortness of breath, edema, palpitations.
Stratification of the walls and rupture of the aneurysm, which leads to death. Terrible signs are: sharp pallor, throbbing of the veins of the neck, loss of consciousness, hoarse, shallow breathing.
Aortic atherosclerosis, localized in the region of the valve, coronary arteries, often ends in death. When the arc is damaged, an acute insufficiency of the blood supply to the brain (stroke) develops, which is accompanied by loss of speech, paralysis, paresis. A complication of atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta is a dissecting aneurysm with a possible rupture.
Aortic atherosclerosis, localized in the abdominal region, leads to the development of visceral artery thrombosis. The patient’s general condition sharply worsens, his stomach hurts greatly. Painful spasms do not go away even after taking antispasmodics or strong painkillers. Such symptoms require immediate medical attention, since there is a risk of developing necrosis of the intestinal loops, peritonitis of the peritoneum.
Other, no less formidable complications of aortic atherosclerosis include renal failure and hypertension. In the first case, poor blood supply causes a gradual necrosis of the cells. In this case, the tissues are replaced by connective tissue. Renal blood circulation disorders and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) lead to the development of hypertension.
Other complications of aortic atherosclerosis:
- Angina pectoris, which develops due to insufficient blood supply to the myocardium;
- Ischemia of organs and tissues, the cause of which is chronic oxygen starvation;
- Collapse (acute vascular insufficiency).
Each of the great vessels delivers enriched blood to a specific organ or system. For example, the task of the coronary arteries is to supply blood to the heart, the carotid and brachiocephalic sections of the brain, and the arteries of the lower extremities to provide blood circulation in the legs.
The problem of proliferation of cholesterol plaques and connective tissue between them can affect any major arteries. Depending on which of them was affected by atherosclerosis, there are several types of this disease, with various manifestations.
The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen and nutrients via the coronary arteries. The defeat of these vessels by atherosclerosis poses a serious threat to the heart, affecting the rhythm and completeness of its contractions.
The smaller the lumen of the coronary arteries becomes, the less oxygen enters the heart muscle. The resulting angina pectoris over time can disturb even at rest. If this situation is left without proper treatment, a heart attack is likely to occur.
Atherosclerosis of the arteries providing blood supply to the brain is especially dangerous. For the nutrition of all structures of the head, such large vessels are responsible:
- brachiocephalic trunk;
- left common carotid artery;
- left subclavian artery.
If the movement of blood to the brain is too difficult or completely blocked, whether due to an increase in the number of cholesterol plaques or due to blood clots formed on them, an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke will occur.
The third most frequent occurrence is stenotic atherosclerosis in the vessels of the lower extremities. He was overtaken by damage to the coronary vessels, as well as vessels that provide blood supply to the brain.
The accumulation of lipid plaques inside the arteries of the lower extremities can lead to gangrene. Three stages of the disease are distinguished with the following manifestations:
- Pain during heavy physical exertion.
- Pain when walking 200 m.
- Pain when walking 50 m.
- Trophic tissue changes.
Gangrene can develop in the case of occlusive lesions of the arteries, that is, with their complete overlap.
Branches of the aortic thoracic region direct the flow of enriched blood to the organs of the chest, to the structures of the head and to the arms. The abdominal part of the aorta supplies blood to organs located in the lower body. Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta often appears together with atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels and cerebral vessels.
The consequences of this disease can be very serious and life-threatening. For example, stenotic atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain often provokes the development of a stroke. Of course, this complication does not appear at all. It all depends on the characteristics of the body, a predisposition to the occurrence of an ailment.
Stenosing atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities also does not always have a favorable prognosis. If the artery is completely blocked, the likelihood of developing ischemic gangrene increases. Especially often, pathology occurs in people with diabetes, since this disease accelerates the process of stenosis.
Prevention of aortic atherosclerosis helps prevent the development of the disease.
It is not at all difficult to adjust the lifestyle, it is enough to eliminate the reversible risk factors for the onset of the disease:
- Drinking alcohol;
- Binge eating;
- Improper nutrition;
- Lack of physical activity;
- Excess weight;
In order to prevent aortic atherosclerosis, it is necessary to regularly donate blood for analysis to determine cholesterol levels and timely detection of lipid metabolism disorders. If the indicators exceed the norm, it is necessary to adjust the diet, excluding products of animal origin.
Such people need to pay attention to the quality and composition of the diet, to move more. It is necessary to regularly visit a doctor and conduct a heart examination. With angina pectoris, it is recommended to take aspirin, which dilutes the blood, prevents the appearance of blood clots.
It is necessary to begin to engage in the prevention of stenosing atherosclerosis from early childhood. All unhealthy people are at risk for the disease.
- hygiene regimen;
- moderate exercise;
- compliance with the regime of work and rest.
Do not forget about proper nutrition. The diet should mainly consist of lean meat and seafood, as well as plant foods.
A healthy lifestyle means giving up addiction. However, it is better not to start smoking and drinking alcohol at all.
The listed recommendations should be observed both during therapy and before it. Such tips can avoid complications of the disease. When the first symptoms appear, indicating stenosing atherosclerosis, you should consult a doctor and check the blood vessels. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe appropriate treatment.
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