An artificial bladder is a round bowel segment formed by various surgical techniques.
Placement of the bladder and indications to it
An artificial bladder is formed in the following ways:
- Heterotopic plastic, urostomy. (Creating a reserve with urine diversion to the front wall of the human peritoneum). A cavity is created from the intestine, which is connected to the anterior wall of the peritoneum using a special opening (urostomy). The ureter moves to a separate part of the intestine. Urine is passed out through a catheter or stoma.
A stoma is a connecting hole between an organ and the external environment. In this type of operation, complications will be the most minimal.
- Orthotopic plastic. It is used if there are no cancerous growths in the urethra. The bladder is created from the bottom of the small intestine. Such a bladder is connected to the urinary organ and the urethra. After installing such a bladder, a person will not feel the urge to urinate due to the removal of nerve endings during the operation. You will need to regularly tighten your abdominal muscles.
The advantages of an orthotopic bladder when removing a forty centimeter colon are:
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to control urination.
Removing a sixty centimeter colon has the following advantages:
The disadvantages of this method are:
The capacity of the bladder from the intestines is 0,5 liters.
Indications for placing an artificial bladder are:
- Cancer tumors of the bladder.
- Various injuries.
- Congenital pathologies, exstrophy.
- Shrinking the size of the bladder.
In case of congenital abnormalities of the bladder, the operation is performed within a week after the birth of the child.
There are the following contraindications for inserting the bladder from the bowel:
- Renal failure.
- Serious liver disease.
- Acute kidney inflammation.
- Diseases of the psyche.
- Malignant tumors of the last stages.
It is not recommended to carry out the operation to persons who have reached the age of seventy.
For weeks before the operation, the patient needs to install an appropriate diet, cleansing enemas, suppression of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
The choice of a way to drain urine from the body depends on a number of factors:
- The patient’s age.
- Cancer stages.
- The experience of the surgeon.
- Desires of the operated person.
- From the condition of the organs of the genitourinary system.
Surgical operation to install an artificial bladder is divided into several stages:
- Formation of a pathway for urine outflow (a part of the intestine is cut off and sewn together with the vessels)
- The ureters move into the abdominal cavity.
- The urethra is connected with part of the intestine, a catheter is inserted.
- Establishing a stoma.
- Wounds are sewn up, a bandage is applied.
Living with an artificial bladder
After the operation to insert the bladder, in order to avoid rupture of the postoperative sutures, it is necessary to avoid overfilling it. For a uniform outflow of urine, a catheter is inserted through the urethra into an artificial bladder. The catheter must be attached to the urine collection bag attached to the leg.
To avoid the formation of stones in the artificial bladder, it is necessary to periodically flush the bladder and catheter with saline.
Before and after flushing the catheter, a number of rules must be followed:
- The saline solution should be at room temperature.
- Before flushing the catheter, the external genitals and hands should be flushed.
- In order for the catheter to be well inserted, it must be wiped with vaseline oil.
Removal of the catheter is performed two weeks after the operation.
For a year after the installation of the bladder, a person will constantly feel its overflow, as well as urinary incontinence. But this phenomenon is fixable, you just need to strengthen the pelvic muscles.
Drink plenty of water as well. Physical activity is allowed only a year after the operation.
Men, after having an artificial bladder installed, may initially experience problems in their intimate life.
Possible complications after surgery
After the operation to install an artificial bladder, the following complications are not excluded for a number of one reason or another:
- Stomach and intestinal problems.
- Narrowing of the ureter.
- Various infections.
- Prolapsed stoma.
- The likelihood of a hernia.
- Lack of urine flow.
Complications can also appear not only after the operation, but also after some time.
An artificial bladder acts as a natural bladder, thereby making life much easier for a person. Such operations are a breakthrough in medicine.
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