In fact, doctors in determining the state of human health rely not only on the quantitative composition of the blood. After a general analysis, an idea appears about the changes occurring in the body, in terms of size and type of red blood cells, platelets. Anisocytosis is a rather unusual disorder that occurs in adults and children and can lead to pathologies associated with changes in the size of blood cells, which may indicate the development of diseases and makes it necessary to conduct additional examinations and treatment.
In the body of a healthy person, the norm of red blood cells is 70%, micro and macrocytes – 11,5-14,5% (or 10-20 fl). In a child under 6 months, the indicator is higher – from 15% to 18,8%. During pregnancy, it can increase. If the result exceeds or does not reach the norm, this means that a pathological process is developing. There is also microcytosis – a decrease in the permissible diameter. The following indicators of cell diameter are distinguished:
- normocytes reach 7-8 microns (anisocytosis of red blood cells was not detected);
- macrocytes – above 8 microns;
- megalocytes – above 12 microns.
This pathology can be caused by an insufficient amount of vitamins A and B in the body, oncological diseases with bone marrow metastases. Do not exclude liver disease, dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Another possible reason is donated blood transfusion. In order to prevent the disease in time, it is necessary to regularly monitor the composition and blood counts.
An increased test result is often found in patients with iron or vitamin deficiencies. If a blood test revealed an anisocytosis indicator of red blood cells above normal, this is a signal that a pathology is developing. Depending on the stage, the doctor will diagnose and prescribe a course of treatment. Often the cause of such changes is any type of anemia.
The disease is classified by degree of intensity. There are only 4 of them and they are distributed according to the plus system:
- The first degree is characterized by a slight increase when macrocytes and microcytes fill 30-50% ().
- The second is moderate, 50-70% ().
- The third is pronounced, more than 70% ().
- Fourth – pronounced, almost all red bodies have a pathological size ().
It is extremely rare that the RDW index is lowered, in such cases it is recommended to take a blood test again. If the erythrocyte anisocytosis rate is below normal, and other significant changes are absent, such an analysis is considered satisfactory and is not required to be retaken. Sometimes in the presence of certain diseases, the result of RDW does not change. A reduced result has no value for diagnosis.
The protective function that prevents acute blood loss is performed by blood particles called platelets. They are very important for the human body and are responsible for the ability to coagulate blood. In the analysis, the normal indicator of the number of particles of resized particles should be from 14 to 18%. With platelet anisocytosis, the numbers are different. When tested in an analysis, a platelet index is designated as PDW.
This pathology has its origins, due to the presence of various diseases, since it is only a symptom accompanying them. The patient feels a physiological change. His well-being is getting worse. Changes in the size of platelet cells are provoked with hemorrhoids (with cracks in the anus), with heavy menstruation. Other possible reasons:
- myeloneoplastic processes;
- liver failure;
- viral damage;
- radiation sickness;
- aplastic anemia;
- lack of biologically active substances;
- DIC syndrome.
When you see a frightening phrase in your blood test, for example, “the rate of red blood cell anisocytosis is higher than normal,” do not rush to panic.
The red blood cells, which are also called red blood cells, are responsible in our body for the transfer of nutrients to organs, for the entrainment of excess carbon dioxide and for the supply of oxygen.
As mentioned above, the normal size of red blood cells is 7-9 micrometers.
If the blood cells are significantly different in size from the permissible value, the diagnosis of red blood cell anisocytosis will be diagnosed.
For example, mixed-type anisocytosis with a predominance of microcytes means that the particle sizes in the blood are heterogeneous, but most are small in diameter.
Red blood cell analysis is indicated on the hospital map as RDW. This is an index that measures red blood cells. If the red blood cell anisocytosis index is elevated, it is possible that the body does not have enough iron or vitamin B12. It is also necessary to examine the patient for the presence of chronic liver diseases.
If erythrocyte anisocytosis is reduced, indicate this fact to the attending physician, he will prescribe an examination and a course of treatment aimed at getting rid of the source of violations.
The platelets in our body are responsible for blood coagulation.
Platelet Anisocytosis: What Is It? By analogy with the above information about red blood cells, platelet anisocytosis is an abnormal change in platelet size that goes beyond the normal range.
Platelet size changes with the onset of myeloproliferative processes. The change in particle diameter can also be associated with their deposition, association and with a lack of biologically active substances.
If the PDW indicator is below normal, this may be the basis for testing for the following diseases:
- radiation sickness;
- viral diseases;
- Niman peak disease
- myelodysplastic syndrome;
The treatment of platelet anisocytosis includes, first of all, getting rid of the underlying disease causing the anomaly.
Microcytosis is a condition where a large part (about 30%) of red blood cells mutates into a minority. Their number is increased, but the norm in size differs several times.
Microscopic red blood cells do not fully transport oxygen to tissues and organs in the way that healthy and full-fledged normocytes produce.
With a normal, average erythrocyte diameter in adults, 6,8 and 7,5 microns are detected.
If microcytosis is detected in the analysis, iron deficiency anemia can be further diagnosed.
Norm anisocytosis in the blood
The study involves the study of the size, color, shape of blood cells. Red blood cells are blood cells that are responsible for oxygen enrichment. Platelets strengthen blood vessels if they have been damaged. Tracking their performance is mandatory for everyone, because many diseases affect the results of a blood test. The diagnosis of anisocytosis is characterized by a high content of resized cells.
This problem may concern red blood cells and platelets, but erythrocytes predominate according to statistics. When diagnosing an increased number of altered blood particles in size, an appropriate diagnosis is made. The designation of anisocytosis in the general blood test is as follows: RDW is the width of the distribution of red blood cells by volume. In medicine, RDW is measured as a percentage or in femtoliters. The pathology of the form of blood cells is called poikilocytosis.
A different type of anisocytosis manifests itself in newborns, infants, as well as in preschoolers and schoolchildren. Microcytes in high levels are observed after infectious diseases.
Macrocytosis is normal in the form of a physiological process found in infants, especially in the first two weeks of life. By 60 days of life, this pathology disappears on its own.
When diagnosing anisocytosis of any kind in children, it indicates such diseases:
- hypochromic anemia;
A healthy person has 70% of the norm of red blood cells with a general blood test. In this case, the ratio of micro and macro should deliver an equal ratio.
- In an adult, the range is not lower than 12, and not higher than 14%.
- Children under six months are examined with an RDW index of normally 15 to 19%.
- Starting from six months, these parameters begin to decrease, approaching general norms – 11,5-14,7%.
In rare cases, a decrease in RDW is detected, so the patient is sent for re-delivery. With a similar indicator of erythrocyte anisocytosis, if there are no other significant changes, such an analysis result is determined to be satisfactory and no re-appointment is prescribed.
The protection function, which prevents acute bleeding, performed by blood elements – platelets, is one of the most important in the circulatory system. This is a fairly important component of the human body, responsible for coagulation.
In the process of analysis, the norm for the number of parts with dimensional strain is 14.1 to 18.2%. If platelet anisocytosis is detected, this indicator changes.
This pathology has its own prerequisites, which are explained by various diseases, therefore, such a modification in the general analysis is defined as a symptom.
Among the possible prerequisites for pathology:
- myeloneoplastic process;
- blood cancer;
- kidney and liver problems, hepatitis;
- virus infection;
- radiation sickness;
- initial stage of aplastic anemia;
- deficiency in biologically active substances;
- ICE pathology.
It is detected after referral to a general blood test. With loss of brightness by red blood cells (they are not so scarlet), hypochromia develops.
- with iron deficiency in blood cells;
- at normal maintenance;
- with weak redistribution.
Specialists note a mixed variety.
This violation appears after hemoglobin synthesis is disrupted. The causes of hypochromia are many. One of the most common is a lack of iron in the blood.
The main diagnostic method is the delivery of a general blood test. It indicates the main indicator of blood composition. Platelets and red blood cells should be evaluated to detect anisocytosis. The erythrocyte anisocytosis index is determined by RDW-CV.
General analysis allows you to see the following types of pathology:
- microcytosis – cells are reduced;
- macrocytosis – cells are enlarged;
- mixed type – the simultaneous presence of decrease and increase in equal proportions.
Depending on the severity of anisocytosis, several species are distinguished, where pluses are prescribed in a certain amount:
- result with minor disturbances, with one plus – changed red blood cells at the border up to 25%;
- a result with a moderate degree, with two pluses – the changed cells reach 50%;
- the result with a pronounced degree, with three pluses – the changed cells reach 75%;
- result with an acute or critical degree, a maximum of four pluses – the total number of red blood cells with abnormalities.
Determining the exact cause of the deviations and their severity should be carried out by a qualified specialist. Self-interpretation of analysis results is not recommended. Pathology can indicate the presence of serious diseases that must be cured.
Distinctive signs of the disease
Any change in the blood has a reason, so they find out. The causes of anisocytosis are diverse.
The most common deviations:
- fatty, spicy, high-calorie foods, as a result of which the body lacks iron, vitamin B12 (megakaryocytes predominate), vitamin A, which is responsible for the formation of the blood cell;
- oncological diseases;
- blood donation – before transfusion, the donor must check the material for this pathology, since it is transmitted to a second person;
- myelodysplastic syndrome, provoking changes in the size of blood cells.
In newborns, anisocytosis is a physiological norm. But in other cases, this phenomenon may be a consequence of such conditions:
- iron deficiency
- lack of vitamins of group A, vitamin B12,
- blood transfusion
- myelodysplastic syndrome
- oncological diseases
- liver pathologies
- disorders of the thyroid gland.
The reasons for the increase in platelet size may be the following diseases:
- aplastic anemia
- spread to the bone marrow,
- radiation sickness,
- taking cytotoxic drugs,
- viral diseases
- cirrhosis of the liver and other pathologies.
After we figured out what anisocytosis is in a blood test, let’s move on to the main causes that cause it.
Often, the causes of changes in the size of blood cells can be explained by improper or inadequate nutrition. This is especially true in situations where changes are minor and not critical. Of course, a 100% content of blood cells, which differ in size from the norm, can hardly be attributed to poor nutrition. However, this fact should not be overlooked.
Lack of nutrition during anisocytosis is associated with a lack of iron, vitamins B12 and A.
This deficiency can lead to anemia. The fact is that the effect of the listed beneficial components on the blood is quite large.
- Vitamin B12 and iron contribute to the formation of red blood cells.
- Vitamin A helps stabilize the size of blood cells.
So it is very important to eat fully and healthy. On the table should be meat, fresh vegetables and fruits. In the treatment and prevention of anisocytosis, the doctor may prescribe vitamin complexes in addition to the diet.
If before transfusing blood from one person to another, she was not tested for anisocytosis, and he was present, most likely the person who received the donated blood will also find this deviation, even if he was absolutely healthy. This is due to the fact that the immune system is not ready for such a change and will not be able to immediately cope with the normalization of the size of blood cells. However, after some time, unhealthy cells will still be replaced with standard-size bodies.
- Oncological diseases.
If tumors form in the bone marrow, this entails the development of anisocytosis.
This syndrome entails the formation of red blood cells of different sizes, which is the essence of anisocytosis.
How to detect anisocytosis in a general blood test? In humans, it contains platelets, which are responsible for its coagulation, white blood cells. They are called white bodies, which perform their functions in the fight against foreign particles and infections. The erythrocytes play a very important role for life, which transport oxygen and nutrients to the cells and are involved in the transfer of carbon dioxide. The structure and shape of red blood cells is not the same, that is, they are represented by different sizes:
- Normocytes include cells ranging in size from seven to nine micrometers.
- Microcytes or microerythrocytes are cells up to seven micrometers in size.
- Macrocytes can include cells as small as eight micrometers.
- Megalocytes are cells from a size of twelve micrometers.
Provided that all indicators of red blood cells in the blood are normal and the person is completely healthy, the number of normocytes does not exceed seventy percent of the total number of red blood cells, and macrocytes and microcytes account for up to fifteen percent. If during the analysis it becomes known that some indicator is higher than normal or, conversely, lower than expected, this indicates any disturbances in the body.
From the definition it follows that anisocytosis in a general blood test is a modification of the size of red blood cells and platelets. In the case when this violation is poorly expressed, a number of additional studies should be conducted to discard the likelihood of serious diseases of the body. Hemoglobin decreases in red blood cells and this leads to anemia. Despite this, it is necessary to carefully check the state of the blood in order to exclude more serious deviations.
Any change in blood has a basis that needs to be clarified in order to find the root of the problem. The causes of anisocytosis are of a different nature, often they are as follows:
- poor nutrition, as a result – a lack of iron, vitamins B12 (the predominance of megakaryocytes), A, which are responsible for the creation of red shaped blood cells;
- blood transfusion – donor material should be checked for the presence of this disease, because it is transmitted to another person;
- myelodysplastic syndrome – provokes a change in the size of blood cells.
Since this disease is a concomitant syndrome of many diseases, some pathologies can be confirmed by the result of the analysis. For example, patients with iron deficiency anemia know firsthand what anisocytosis is. The diameter of blood particles in the smear changes with diverticulosis, with endocrine diseases, as a side effect when taking hormonal drugs, with impaired absorption of B vitamins, with peptic ulcer. Knowing everything about anisocytosis – what it is, and understanding its causes, you can avoid the development of many dangerous diseases.
Poikilocytosis is a pathological modification of red blood cells. In this case, cell deformation and malfunctioning occurs.
The cells present mean the presence in the body of a particular type of anemia, which in most cases has a moderate or severe stage.
To detect erythrocyte poikilocytosis, a general blood test is performed. If as a result the presence of “anisocytosis” or “poikilocytosis” is written on the form, a further check is required.
At the first concept, possible anemia of the initial stage. that the patient suffers from mild anemia. Poikilocytosis can indicate a moderate to severe stage.
How is anisocytosis detected? The norm was indicated earlier.
The main diagnostic method is a blood test for all indicators. It indicates the characteristics of the blood composition, indicators of red blood cells and platelets, necessary in order to detect anisocytosis. The erythrocyte index can be found by the line, which is called the coefficient of variation of the volume of red blood cells and the average deviation of the volume of red blood cells. A characteristic line for platelet research is the average platelet volume and platelet anisocytosis index.
Anisocytosis is asymptomatic. In this condition, only signs of diseases that are the cause of this phenomenon are manifested. In addition, each disease is characterized by its changes in the patient’s condition.
In newborns with anisocytosis, there is no pathological change in the state, since this phenomenon is not a deviation from the norm.
Diagnosis of anisocytosis in newborns
Diagnosis of anisocytosis is possible only with a general blood test. The presence of a change in the parameters of red blood cells or platelets is indicated by the volume index RDW and PDW, which is measured in percent. The laboratory assistant studies deviations in the blood smear from the norm and determines the difference between enlarged and reduced cells. Based on this difference, the degree of anisocytosis is determined.
You can not judge the state of health by a general blood test. To identify pathologies associated with anisocytosis, it is necessary to undergo a number of additional diagnostic measures. This is especially necessary if a woman has complaints about a deterioration in well-being.
Anisocytosis is a condition that in most cases is a sign of anemia. Symptoms are similar to each other. Severe signs of this condition resemble a manifestation of heart failure. If you find the symptoms described below, consult your doctor and have a complete blood count done:
- decreased performance;
- decreased attention span;
- lack of ability to play sports;
- powerlessness and breakdown;
- shortness of breath with exertion or for no apparent reason, appearing periodically;
- palpitations without any load;
- increased tremors of the heart muscle;
- pale skin;
- pale color of the nail plates;
- pallor of eyeballs;
- noise in ears;
- disturbances in normal appetite and sleep;
- decreased sex drive;
- violation of the sensitivity of the skin.
If these symptoms appear, consult a doctor.
This type of pathology is characterized by a reduced level of total microcyte count (microanisocytosis) and macrocyte count. To correctly determine the percentage ratio, the Price-Jones method is used during the study. Mixed anisocytosis suggests the predominance of macrocytes. The source of this change is a deficiency of vitamins A, B12, as a result of which anemia develops. Still worth paying attention to the condition of the liver. If macrocytosis is detected in a larger amount – this indicates a lack of iron.
With a mixed type of change in the size of blood cells, the total number of macro and microcytes in the blood does not rise above 50%. The Price-Jones curve will help to identify this. If we talk about mixed anisocytosis, then macrocytes will prevail in the blood. More often diagnosed with pernicious anemia, or anemia caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12.
The normal RDW is an average of fourteen to eighteen percent. Deviation caused by a decrease or increase in platelet size can be mild to moderate.
In this pathology, the level of the total content of increased cellular sizes and reduced decreases. For the correct determination of the percentage ratio during the examination, use the Price-Jones method.
This kind of anisocytosis indicates the predominance of macrocytes. The source of changes is a lack of vitamin A, B12, which suggests the formation of anemia.
The problem may also concern kidney failure. If macrocytosis of a more established norm is detected, this means a lack of iron.