Angina pectoris symptoms what to do and what not to do

Cardiovascular diseases still occupy the leading place in the world in mortality. Doctors struggle with heart diseases, and patients continue to lead an unhealthy lifestyle and carelessly about their health. Angina pectoris is one of the most common diseases that is equally merciless to both men and women.

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Types of angina pectoris

Sometimes a person for years may not be aware of the presence of angina pectoris in the heart. The reason for this is the nature of the pain. It is he who helps to classify angina pectoris into two types: stable and progressive.

Stable angina pectoris involves seizures that last at the same time. A woman can notice their frequency and duration. Pain of the same nature, without additional symptoms and changes. The provoking factor with stable angina is the same.

Progressive angina pectoris is a disease that is truly scary, because the symptoms can change and get worse every time.

It is this type of angina pectoris that leads to coronary heart disease and heart failure. The pain with each attack increases, as does its duration. Attack after attack, a woman can observe the appearance of new symptoms, which are even more scary. Progressive angina pectoris is a direct path to myocardial infarction, so timely treatment plays an important role.

The causes of angina pectoris are based on the age of the patient. If men are ill after 40 years, then women are not younger than 50 years old. The reason is the female structure of the body, because it is precisely at this age that most women start menopause. Female hormones protect the cardiovascular system until menopause begins. Estrogen is a female hormone that affects the health of blood vessels, prevents the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels.

The second factor that affects the timely diagnosis of the disease is the difficulty in making a diagnosis.

The third factor affecting the development of angina pectoris is hidden in the breathing patterns of patients. With angina pectoris women breathe shallowly, but often, as there is a feeling of lack of air. Features of such manifestations are based on the causes of respiratory syndrome. In women, lack of air occurs due to spasms of blood vessels, and in men – due to blockage of blood vessels by atherosclerotic plaques.

Angina pectoris is often called “angina pectoris”, as the disease manifests itself as pressing pain in the chest. In women over 50, the pain can be different, deployed in different parts of the body.

Features of pain with angina in women:

  • pain on both the right side of the chest and the left,
  • sometimes soreness at the level of the shoulder blades, left shoulder or jaw,
  • cramping pain
  • the duration of the attack is different (from 5 minutes to 15),
  • an attack of more than 20 minutes may result in a heart attack.

In addition to these symptoms in women, disorders of the autonomic nervous system are manifested. Pain is accompanied by excessive sweating, pallor of the skin, weakness in the legs, and dizziness.

Signs of angina pectoris in women are changes in the psychoemotional background, which is due to the peculiarity of the hormonal background. Women are brighter and more severely experiencing bouts of such pain, men describe the symptoms dry and simple. Representatives of the fair sex at the time of the attack notice:

  • fear of death
  • severe lack of air
  • shortness of breath,
  • nervousness,
  • numbness of the limbs
  • cold sweat.

Hormonal background and mental resistance to pain plays an important role. Therefore, doctors, when making a diagnosis, often prescribe sedatives to such patients, since the pain due to experiences increases.

An attack of angina pectoris in women is experienced emotionally, so when a sensation reappears, a woman experiences more stress. To prevent soreness, you need to visit a doctor after the first attack. Better after the appearance of pain in the heart, an ambulance immediately.

The first signs of angina may appear in the form of:

  • heart palpitations (tachycardia),
  • shortness of breath after physical exertion,
  • swelling of the legs or arms,
  • high blood pressure
  • dizziness
  • headache,
  • bright flies in the eyes
  • increased sweating of the palms.

Symptoms cannot be ignored, since angina pectoris is a harbinger of coronary heart disease.

Diagnostics

Symptoms of angina pectoris in women can appear hidden, for example: only after or during physical exertion. An electrocardiogram is used to diagnose the disease. This method allows you to see all the changes in the heart during the examination period. Often carried out at the first appointment with a doctor.

Doing a cardiogram is necessary not only at the time of calm, but also during exercise. It is this double approach that will help determine the physical changes in the organ.

Treatment is prescribed in accordance with the changes in the work of the heart. If such methods also did not help to determine heart disease, then a woman can be offered diagnostics using a Holter monitor. This is a portable device that reads information from the heart throughout the day. Then the collected information is processed by a computer, which produces the result of the examination. He remembers all changes in the work of the heart, and then he analyzes it using a computer program.

Angina pectoris after 50 years may appear due to stress, physical activity or an unhealthy lifestyle. Therefore, older women need to monitor their health and undergo timely examinations by cardiologists.

Types and signs

According to the main classification, doctors distinguish three types of angina pectoris:

  1. Stable
  2. Unstable.
  3. Variant (spontaneous, vasospastic).

The most dangerous and prognostically unfavorable is considered an unstable form, which can lead to primary or secondary myocardial infarction.

About stable angina pectoris say attacks of the same strength and duration, which occur under the influence of provocative factors similar in intensity. The pain occurs during physical exertion, lasts 10 – 15 minutes and is stopped by Nitroglycerin.

Unstable develops after myocardial infarction (early post-infarction angina) or as the first stage of coronary heart disease (CHD). Its peculiarity is that chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations appear at rest, seizures last up to two hours and are not amenable to nitroglycerin therapy.

Attacks of variant angina begin at night at rest or in the morning. They cause a spasm of the coronary vessels, the vascular walls are usually not changed. Attacks last about five minutes and are removed by Nitroglycerin.

Spontaneous angina is more common in women. Heart pains against the background of full health sometimes occur in suspicious people prone to phobias, in those suffering from depression.

First of all, angina pectoris is stable and unstable. It is difficult to find the official difference in textbooks, but this word can be replaced by another: “predicted.” And then everything will become clear.

Stable angina pectoris is a type in which the conditions for its occurrence, the nature of the course of the attack and, most importantly, the conditions for termination are known in advance. It is this type of angina that can be easily treated and prevented by a heart attack.

  • To put it simply, this is a type of angina pectoris, which for 2 months proceeded equally and did not “throw out surprises”.

This type of angina pectoris is called “stable angina pectoris”, and is divided into several functional classes.

FC 1: the usual load in everyday life does not cause an attack, only excessive or prolonged stress. That is why for diagnosis it takes a long time to “drive” the patient on a bicycle ergometer, and even with a heavy load. These patients only “enter” the diagnosis of angina pectoris, and they do not enter hospitals;

With FC 2, angina pectoris has to slightly limit the load. So, an attack can occur if you walk a kilometer at a fast pace, or climb non-stop to the 6-7th floor. In some cases, an additional provocation of attacks occurs, for example, when in freezing air or under stress;

With FC 3 it is no longer possible to walk more than 200 m. Or climb one flight of stairs without pain. Sometimes angina pectoris can occur not only stress, but also rest, and even lying down. You have to drastically limit yourself in everyday life, in your personal life, in sexual relationships;

FC 4 – the inability to perform any load. Getting up from the couch, brushing your teeth, cooking – causes painful discomfort. Often there are attacks at rest.

With unstable angina, the symptoms “fluctuate” – this occurs when the compensatory mechanisms fail and the angina transitions from the chronic to the acute phase, when seizures can occur in the most unforeseen and unexpected conditions.

You need to know that patients with unstable angina should be treated in a hospital, since this condition is life-threatening. During its development, a progressive narrowing of the coronary artery, tearing of the plaque, the formation of a thrombus, or arterial spasm usually occurs.

  • Typically, an attack of such unstable angina lasts no more than a week, but can result in a transformation into a heart attack.

There are several forms of unstable angina (briefly):

  • First occurring (in theory, any first-occurring angina pectoris is unstable for two months until doctors recognize its features);
  • Progressive angina pectoris, with the transition from class to class in a short time;
  • Arising after a heart attack or surgery;
  • Spontaneous angina pectoris (Prinzmetal).

This form of unstable angina is vasospastic, and severe atherosclerosis is not necessary for its appearance. It occurs during sleep, in the morning hours, against the background of tachycardia (REM sleep phase), turns in bed and nightmares.

This form must be diagnosed using Holter (daily) monitoring, since the readings taken in the morning have diagnostic value. Moreover, this study can be repeated, because seizures can occur 1-2 times a month, but this does not reduce their danger.

How does a typical attack of angina pectoris (angina pectoris) proceed, what are its symptoms and what should I pay attention to?

Stable angina pectoris A pathology in which the walls of the blood vessels by atherosclerosis are narrowed by 70%. The presented lesion requires medical treatment, because fatty plaques burst and there is a risk of overlap of the lumen with fully formed blood clots. The lack of timely treatment increases the frequency of angina attacks at rest. The stable form is divided into the following:
  • latent – an attack occurs during a period of physical activity, and a person can be healthy and not experience pain, pathology is determined by coronary angiography;
  • second class – an attack occurs in the morning or in the evening, by changing the weather or during physical activity, attacks can be completely eliminated by normalizing the work day and physical activity;
  • third class – angina attacks occur during a stressful situation, people at risk are emotional and prone to stress;
  • fourth class – angina attacks occur even at the slightest physical exertion.
Unstable angina
  • The form refers to a pre-infarction condition.
  • Attacks occur suddenly, the patient complains of attacks of pain in the chest.
  • Such complaints become an indication for urgent hospitalization.
At rest
  • An attack occurs suddenly without the slightest physical exertion.
  • The form refers to a post-infarction condition, since it often appears within 2 weeks after a heart attack.
Variant angina pectoris
  • Attacks occur in the morning, at night, and at rest.
  • Atherosclerotic lesion does not become a harbinger, and the attack itself is provoked by a spasm of the coronary arteries.
  • Duration varies from 2 to 5 minutes.
  • First aid is important here – the spasm is relieved after administration of nitroglycerin.

Features of female angina pectoris

Representatives of the weaker sex generally tolerate heart attacks than men, but their angina can also develop when the coronary vessels are completely healthy. The risk of angina pectoris increases in men older than 50 years, and women fall ill on average ten years later.

symptomatology

One of the features of the manifestation of angina pectoris in women is that typical symptoms are manifested in a complex. In men, solitary manifestations are more likely to manifest.

The general symptoms of angina are burning, stitching, cutting or compressing pains behind the sternum against the background of physical or psycho-emotional stress, which is given to the lower jaw, under the left shoulder blade, shoulder, back.

Women complain of fatigue, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and other signs characteristic of indigestion, nocturnal cough. Unlike men, they rarely indicate suffocation and lack of air: during an attack of angina pectoris, breathing involuntarily becomes frequent and shallow, but subjectively, you can pay attention to this.

Diagnostics

Diagnosing a woman with angina pectoris is more difficult than a man with the same form of the disease. Pain with a heart attack is atypical, and the complex of manifestations often resembles the symptoms of diseases not related to the heart and blood vessels: pleurisy, pneumonia, pathologies of the esophagus, chest osteochondrosis.

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Women and men describe attacks differently, focusing on different sensations. The fact that a man does not pay attention will alarm the woman, but she may miss important details.

Vivid manifestations of the disease in a woman do not always indicate a poor state of the cardiovascular system, and catastrophic damage to the heart (for example, myocardial infarction) sometimes manifests itself as painless symptoms.

With the neurological nature of the pain, some standard diagnostic methods (for example, stress tests) will not work. In women, more often than in men, false-positive tests with FN are found, but less often – false-negative ones.

When making a differential diagnosis, the patient is prescribed a comprehensive examination: they give a direction to laboratory tests and conduct instrumental examinations – ECG, coronarography, ultrasound of the heart and blood vessels. If necessary, a woman is recommended to consult an endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, neurologist or other specialists.

Of course, the symptomatology is the same for everyone, but due to gender differences, different representatives have a number of some features in the perception of the manifestations of the disease. As with men, the first symptom of angina pectoris is the appearance of pain in the chest area. Although due to the female physiology of the body, this symptom does not always indicate the development of angina pectoris.

There is another difference, women often do not feel shortness of breath with such disorders of the cardiovascular system. In addition, the very nature of the manifestation of pain in this area is different, most often from women suffering from an ailment; complaints are received not of compressive pain, of stitching and throbbing, men are characterized by a standard form of pain with such a disease.

Also, the symptom in women is affected by the age category to which the patient belongs. Rarely, such a disease manifests itself before the onset of menopause, so the risk of disease in women increases only after forty years. Men have no specific age criteria. This is due to the presence of a large amount of estrogen in women, which often acts as a defense of the body from various ailments, and angina is also considered to be among them. But since with the onset of menopause, the level of the hormone decreases sharply, the chances of men and women to develop angina are equalized.

As for male malaise from angina pectoris, excessive physical exertion, a greater number of experienced stresses, frequent overwork, as well as frequent stresses in a psychoemotional way are more likely to affect its development. The main factors influencing the development of the disease in men are also heredity and age.

Basically, the risk of developing the disease increases in men who have reached the age of fifty. This is justified by the presence of numerous processes occurring in the body, including age-related changes in the functional of the endocrine system, which are also more likely to affect men.

Often men tend to lead either a sedentary lifestyle, or vice versa, they neglect excessive physical exertion. Also, the stronger sex is more difficult to survive precisely the emotional stress. Yes, and the use of improper food, excessive amounts of alcohol and tobacco smoking are more characteristic of the male half, women behave more restrained in this regard. Also, male hypothermia include constant hypothermia.

The following characteristic signs are distinguished:

  1. Pathology is diagnosed in a large number of forty-year-old men, while in women it manifests itself in about fifty-five to sixty. Signs of angina pectoris in women older than 50 years are due to a sharp decrease in estrogen levels observed after menopause. These hormones prevent the deposition of cholesterol on the vascular endothelium and the formation of atherosclerotic formations.
  2. Women rarely complain of characteristic shortness of breath, not noticing the appearance of rapid and shallow breathing.
  3. Signs of angina pectoris in a woman are similar to cardialgia – pains not related to cardiopathology, not stopping nitroglycerin. At the same time, unlike men who feel painful squeezing behind the sternum, the ladies show sharp sharp pain, tingling in the chest, reminiscent of neuralgia. Atypical symptoms do not accurately determine the causes of the violation. Diagnosis is also hampered by the fact that the development of an attack causes a vascular spasm, and during the examination, atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary vessels are not detected.
  4. Uncharacteristic manifestations also include pain in the abdomen, nausea, heartburn, coughing at night.

The following symptoms of heart angina in women are distinguished:

  • Pain syndrome – manifested by cutting pain, tingling, throbbing uncharacteristic for cardiopathologies. Painful sensations arise due to the release of a large amount of histamine and serotonin, which are mediators of pain, occurring in the acute form of ischemia. Irradiation is observed on the area of ​​the left shoulder blade or arm, the left side of the neck, and the jaw. The pains are wave-like, the attack lasts from five to fifteen minutes.
  • Respiratory problems – the patient does not have enough air, so she breathes often, as a result of stagnation in the pulmonary arteries, gas exchange is disturbed, the blood is not saturated with oxygen.
  • Nausea, abdominal pain, heartburn.
  • Sweating (hyperhidrosis) – pain and fear cause the release of the stress hormone adrenaline, which stimulates the release of cold sweat. Most sweating palms, armpits, feet, forehead.
  • Tachycardia – due to insufficient blood supply to brain tissue.
  • Freezing of hands and feet, cyanotic shade of fingers – as a result of inhibition of cardiac activity, a deficiency of blood supply to peripheral zones and hypoxia develop. This explains the constant tingling in the limbs, the blue of the nasolabial region, fingers on the hands.
  • Blanching – due to angiospasm developing under the influence of adrenaline.
  • An increase in blood pressure indicators – develops under the influence of a high level of adrenaline, which has a vasoconstrictive effect. The patient is dizzy, dark “flies” flash before his eyes.
  • Psycho-emotional disorders – the patient experiences increased anxiety, fear of death, panic horror. This is reflected in her face, taking on a characteristic, frightened, distorted expression of pain.

Types of angina pectoris

Types and signs

A man clutching at a heart “brought to work” is a cinematic symptom of an angina attack. Medicine offers a slightly more detailed picture of the attack:

  • The first sign of an attack of angina pectoris is paroxysmal pain of a constricting nature behind the sternum;
  • In most cases, it appears at the height of any tension: both emotional and physical;
  • It provokes an attack, in addition to loading, an increase in blood pressure, an attack of tachycardia, cold, windy weather, plentiful and satisfying food intake (all blood rushes to the digestive system, robbing the heart), and even with a sharp transition to a lying position;
  • The nature of the pain is burning, pressing, heavy, compressing. In mild cases, simply chest discomfort;
  • The usual localization is the top and middle of the sternum;
  • Rare localization – in the projection of the heart itself, or in the epigastric region;
  • Gives pain (radiating) – to the left hand, jaw, left shoulder, hand, collarbone, scapula. But, in any case, there is pain behind the sternum. In the right half of the body, pain is very rare, but such cases are possible;
  • The duration of the attack is (in typical cases) from 1 to 15 minutes;
  • An important sign of angina pectoris is a quick and good response from taking nitroglycerin under the tongue. As a rule, with stable angina pectoris, in 1-2 minutes there is a complete relief of the pain syndrome.

What you do not know about the symptoms of angina pectoris in women, their distinguishing features

How is angina manifested:

  • the initial nature of pain of various kinds, which often manifest themselves as a result of mental, psychoemotional or physical overstrain;
  • pain is felt in the chest, in the heart region;
  • pain impulses can also radiate to the neck, lower jaw, left arm or shoulder blade;
  • pain can be described as a burning, compressive discomfort in the heart region;
  • it is also possible that there is a foreign object in the chest;
  • difficulty breathing, severe shortness of breath;
  • the patient may lose consciousness during an attack, vomiting and nausea are also possible;
  • the patient may experience a sense of panic attack, due to fear of possible cardiac arrest.

In the case of a sudden manifestation of heart pain, any load affecting the body should be immediately eliminated. It is recommended to take a comfortable position, dissolve the nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue. A second medication is also possible if pain symptoms have not been eliminated. In cases where the duration of the attack exceeds 20 minutes, emergency care specialists should be called because a heart attack can occur.

In the supine position, a greater amount of venous blood flows to the heart, which provokes the occurrence of “physical exertion” during the resting period. Due to the presented phenomenon, the patient often feels chest pain immediately upon awakening in the morning or during a long period of rest in a horizontal position.

The pain during an attack of angina pectoris of the presented form is intense, felt behind the sternum, presses on the chest and radiates to the subscapular region. Among other things, a person during an attack feels heightened anxiety, he has thoughts about the fear of death. The patient is forced to not move, because the slightest movements cause severe pain.

An attack during the rest period can last up to 15 minutes, in contrast to the form of tension, the pains are sharp and intense. It is important to know what to do to stop the pain and stop the attack. Here you need to take 2-3 tablets of nitroglycerin.

During an attack, a person may develop nausea, dizziness, increased blood pressure and other autonomic reactions. Often provoking an attack of angina pectoris at rest is angina pectoris, which was transferred in the daytime.

Types of angina pectoris

About the diagnosis of angina pectoris

We list those methods that are used in the diagnosis of angina pectoris. Since this condition is functional, and not organic, the following tests of functional diagnostics are carried out:

  • ECG, electrocardiogram. Since it may not differ from the norm outside the attack, this is a screening method, and is used at the initial stage of diagnosis;
  • Functional tests with physical activity: bicycle ergometry or treadmill (treadmill). During the load test, an ECG is recorded. First, the recording is carried out at rest, and then the load gradually increases;
  • Holter monitoring. It has great diagnostic value, because it allows you to analyze long periods of time, including nightly;
  • Ultrasound of the heart. It determines the contractility of the myocardium, allows you to assess the severity of hypertrophy, the presence of blood clots in the cavities of the heart and much more;
  • Coronary angiography – allows you to assess the localization and degree of narrowing of the arteries due to the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

Patients with bouts of angina pectoris at rest must undergo a comprehensive examination in a hospital.

ECG The examination reveals a rise or depression of the ST segment, which indicates a critical stenosis of the coronary artery and a malfunction in the heart.
Daily ECG monitoring Not always conducting a single ECG examination gives a positive result for determining the pathology. Therefore, a study is carried out during the day.
Echocardiography Allows you to evaluate the contractility of the myocardium. Thanks to the definition of violations, a pathology is diagnosed.
Biochemical blood test It allows you to determine the level of cholesterol in the blood, glucose, a coagulogram analysis is carried out.
X-ray coronagraphy Determines the work and condition of the coronary arteries.
Positron emission tomography of the heart Determines the state of coronary perfusion and ischemic sites.

Diagnosis of the heart is necessary to determine the pathology leading to the attack. Sometimes chest pain may indicate lung pleurisy, ulcer, or stomach cancer. Through diagnosis, specialists distinguish angina pectoris with phenomena of interstitial pulmonary edema.

Treatment

After the attack of angina pectoris has been stopped, you need to contact a cardiologist and undergo an examination. Most often, angina pectoris is not an independent disease, but a consequence of another serious cardiovascular disease.

With an attack of angina, an ECG, a blood test, an x-ray of the chest organs, an Doppler ultrasound, coronary angiography are prescribed.

After clarifying the diagnosis, the following treatment methods are recommended:

  1. Lifestyle change. Treatment for any heart disease begins with a lifestyle change. It is necessary to adhere to a diet, do not neglect physical activity (or vice versa, reduce it depending on the diagnosis), monitor your condition and cholesterol in the blood.
  2. Reception of antiplatelet agents. These drugs affect platelets and reduce their ability to glue. This prevents blood clots from forming. The drugs have many s >

Thanks to the experience of cardiologists, specialists currently apply such rational types of therapeutic measures: the use of drug treatment, angioplasty, stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting, treatment using autologous stem cells.The required number of medications are prescribed by a qualified cardiologist taking into account the individual factors of the patient himself.

Also, a cardiologist will recommend taking a course of a vitamin-mineral complex with the presence of the main component of potassium or magnesium, in addition, tocopherolone and ascorbic acid are often prescribed.

In addition to medication, which is prescribed by the attending physician, you can use proven folk remedies. The main thing is to observe the measure, and correctly combine the use of drugs and natural medicines. Among the most common and effective recipes, you can identify the most effective of them.

Garlic treatment. To prepare the therapeutic mixture you will need: garlic itself in the amount of five heads (not slices, but whole garlic heads), a liter jar of honey and lemons (about ten pieces). Peel the garlic and squeeze the juice out of the lemons. Juice is poured into a container where honey is already contained, then crushed garlic is added to the composition.

The container should be closed and left in a dark and cool place (not in the refrigerator, otherwise honey will lose its healing properties) and left for at least a week. Already the finished mixture is consumed daily in the amount of two tablespoons per day, usually the appointment is prescribed the previous morning before use main meal.

Initially, you should eat one spoon and dissolve honey, after a couple of minutes, proceed to the second spoon. Treatment continues until the remedy is over. Treatment of angina pectoris with lemons. To get rid of the severe symptoms of angina pectoris, based on reviews, the peel of the lemon also helps. It does not need to be pre-cooked, just peel one lemon from the zest and eat it before eating.

And so three times a day before each meal. The procedure is carried out for a week. The use of aloe with angina pectoris. The recipe is quite simple, its main ingredient is aloe in the amount of 4-5 leaves. The plant should be whiter than three years old. Squeeze juice from the leaves, then, as in the above recipe with garlic, you will need to add lemon juice to honey, aloe is added to the resulting mixture.

The container with this mixture should also be tightly closed, but it is recommended to store it already in the refrigerator on the lower shelf, since the mixture does not need to be infused, it is consumed immediately after preparation. They use the drug about an hour before eating a meal in one tablespoon. The course should be hollow, which takes about a year, with interruptions for a month, as a result, 12 months of treatment pass in 4 months.

In this section, we only briefly touch on the basic principles of the treatment of angina pectoris, and we will not talk about the treatment of coronary heart disease in general. We have already talked about stopping an acute attack of chest pain “with our own hands”. Additionally, can be used:

  1. Beta – adrenergic blockers and narcotic analgesics (with very severe pain), heparin;
  2. A combination of aspirin with clopidogrel is prescribed.

In the treatment of various forms of stable angina pectoris:

  • Various nitroglycerin preparations (sublingual, inhalation forms), including prolonged, and isosorbide dinitrate. With intolerance to nitrates, molsidomine, diltiazem is used. Beta blockers are also prescribed;
  • When stopping a protracted attack, infusion forms of nitroglycerin and isosorbide are used, narcotic analgesics (in a hospital);
  • For the treatment of spontaneous angina of Prinzmetal, the use of prolonged, or “long-playing” forms of nitroglycerin, which can act about 10 hours after administration, is recommended.

In general, the treatment of angina pectoris is a separate topic for large conferences and National Clinical Recommendations. Monotherapy and a combination of drugs, constant and intermittent, are taken into account in patients with concomitant diabetes and heart failure and without it.

Finally, with a number of indications, surgery is performed, for example, coronary artery bypass grafting is performed when a new blood flow is applied to bypass the affected area of ​​the vessel.

Forecast

It is known that the progression of angina pectoris can cause disability (rest angina pectoris), the development of myocardial infarction, and the onset of death.

Therefore, timely diagnosis, modification of risk factors, timely treatment will prevent attacks, improve prognosis and stop angina pectoris at the very beginning of the path – or prevent it from moving further along the functional classes. In order to improve the prognosis of angina pectoris, do not underestimate coronary heart disease.

  • Every healthy person after the onset of 40-45 years of age can himself, without persistent pressure from doctors, check his tests.

These are atherogenic fractions of lipids, perform an ultrasound of the heart and brachiocephalic arteries for signs of atherosclerosis, and also record an ECG – then it will become clear whether there is a threat of a heart attack and what measures should be taken.

Treatment of the presented pathology is prescribed taking into account the examination and determining the cause that led to the development of the attack. In most cases, the cause of the attack is a spasm, which leads to the appointment of medication.

Their use will also have a positive effect on the work of the heart, if you use recipes to calm the nervous system – it is important to remove the possible excitement that occurs at rest.

Nitroglycerine
  • It is used for first aid or in the case of daily treatment as a prophylaxis.
  • The drug is available in various forms.
  • The pharmacological property of the drug is to expand blood vessels to reduce cardiac overload.
  • Thanks to nitroglycerin, blood flow is restored and the spasm is eliminated.
Calcium channel blockers
  • Designed to reduce the concentration of calcium ions in muscle cells.
  • This leads to relaxation and elimination of spasm.
Use of nitroglycerin by continuous infusion Dosage is determined by evaluating the pain syndrome and blood pressure values.
Heparin Enter using a dispenser. The drug is aimed at preventing the formation of a blood clot in the vessels. Use the drug taking into account the indicators of blood coagulation.
Aspirin It improves blood circulation, preventing the formation of blood clots, and facilitating the work of the heart.
Clopidogrel It also prevents blood clots. It is always used in the presence of a stent, since at first there is a risk of stent thrombosis in the patient.

The listed drugs are administered intravenously, as they begin to act faster in eliminating an attack of angina pectoris.

If the nature of the attack takes critical forms, the patient is prescribed surgical treatment – patients open the chest and use their instruments to stop the heartbeat. Often, a stenting method is used here.

Based on the results of a patient examination, a treatment method is determined, where they distinguish:

  • Medication if no anatomical obstruction of blood flow has been detected.
  • If the coronary bed has been damaged, specialists will decide on the use of bypass surgery. In some cases, stenting can be dispensed with.
  • If a local narrowing of the arteries is detected, the patient is given a stent that maintains patency for blood.

It is also important to know what can not be done after treatment, so as not to provoke complications. It is important to abandon bad habits, lead a healthy lifestyle, refuse fatty foods and foods with high cholesterol.

Methods of therapy

The course of treatment of angina pectoris is aimed at eliminating its causes and preventing the action of traumatic factors (for example, atherosclerosis).

The drug course includes drugs to control blood viscosity, improve blood supply to the heart muscle, relieve cramping and vasodilation.

The doctor prescribes a woman:

  • anticoagulants;
  • beta blockers;
  • ACE inhibitors;
  • nitrates.

With a high risk of primary or repeated myocardial infarction, the patient will be recommended surgical intervention – the operation will restore blood flow in the arteries, the blood supply to the heart muscle will return to normal.

  • coronary angioplasty;
  • stenting;
  • bypass surgery.

Stenting is the installation of a special mesh-prosthesis in the vessel, which expands the lumen and prevents it from narrowing again.

Bypass surgery is the formation of an artificial detour for blood flow, bypassing a pathologically altered portion of the vessel. Carried out in severe cases when other types of intervention are undesirable or impossible.

After a heart attack, surgery for both men and women is carried out no earlier than after 3 to 4 weeks. A scheduled operation is prescribed depending on the general condition of the patient; sometimes, shunting has to be performed according to urgent (urgent) indications.

Angina treatment, drugs

Forecast

“Enalapril” refers to a group of cardiovascular agents. The drug has a hypotensive property – it helps to reduce high blood pressure (BP). The drug is an indispensable drug in the first-aid kit of each hypertonic. If your upper pressure exceeds 160 mmHg. Art.

  • age of the patient;
  • the state of his body, cardiovascular system;
  • features or complications in other body systems.

Doctors do not recommend self-medication because it can lead to an even more difficult situation and various complications.

This drug is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Today, such drugs are the best on the market, they have high efficiency and a rare manifestation of side effects. Reviews of patients using the drug Enalapril, allow to highlight the improvement in well-being and overall quality of life after taking these pills.

First a >

If angina pectoris occurs, you need to know how to relieve an attack at home. The patient should be given a Nitroglycerin tablet, if after five minutes the pain has not subsided, repeat the drug. After that, it is allowed to give the patient an anesthetic (Analgin, Baralgin) to relieve chest pain.

A woman needs to be laid down, reassured, open a window or window for fresh air, relax the collar of a shirt, a belt on trousers.

Many, unfortunately, do not know how to behave if a similar attack happened with relatives or with oneself. If there are symptoms of angina pectoris, what should be done and what cannot be done?

  • You need to sit in a chair or lie in bed on a high pillow. If you lie down without a pillow, this can increase the venous load on the heart, and this will strengthen its work and, therefore, the oxygen demand of the myocardium will increase. This will aggravate the attack;
  • All belts, collar should be loosened, buttons should be unfastened;
  • Some recommendations, especially on the Internet, automatically advise you to “open all windows.” This can be done with fainting, but with chest pains, windows can only be opened in warm weather. In frost, you can only intensify the attack of angina pectoris;
  • It is necessary to take aspirin (one tablet) and put a nitroglycerin tablet (0,5 mg) under the tongue. If it is in a capsule, then do not forget to bite it;
  • If the pain has passed, then you need to call a doctor at home;
  • If the pain persists for 10 minutes, then you need to re-take the nitroglycerin tablet and call an ambulance, preferably a cardio team. To do this, you need to clearly report on chest pain, that this is the first time, that the pain is not stopped by taking nitroglycerin;
  • If after another 10-15 minutes the pain does not begin to subside, nitroglycerin can be taken a third time;
  • It is advisable that by the time the ambulance arrives, certificates, ECG records are ready for the doctor.
  • You can not give aspirin if there is an allergy to it (asthma), or there is a peptic ulcer, especially in the acute stage;
  • You can not take a fourth tablet of nitroglycerin;
  • Do not take painkillers;
  • You can neither get up, rush, walk, be active or emotionally react to it during an attack or after it has ended;
  • It is strictly forbidden to drink coffee, smoke or drink alcohol “to relieve” pain;
  • It is also precisely forbidden to get up and go to meet an ambulance yourself on the street.

Prevention

Women who have heart pain need to closely monitor their health. Try to relax more and less nervous, go to bed on time.

The first thing to do to reduce the number and intensity of seizures is to change your lifestyle:

  • to refuse from bad habits;
  • adjust the mode of the day;
  • exclude fatty, smoked and spicy foods, sweets from the diet.

After an intensive treatment course, the doctor will prescribe a supportive therapy for the woman to control blood pressure, cholesterol, blood coagulation and other indicators on which heart health depends. Drugs for the treatment of ischemia are taken for 3 to 5 years.

Although female vessels become more vulnerable during menopause, taking estrogen in menopause does not prevent or relieve angina pectoris in older women.

Do not give up physical activity. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the provoking factors in the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system. People with angina pectoris should not overexert, so physical activity should be dosed. Consult with a physical therapy trainer so that a specialist prescribes safe exercises to keep the heart in good shape.

Based on the symptoms and factors affecting the development of the disease, self-preparation of a preventive course is possible. It will be enough to adhere to all the recommendations of medical indications, conduct regular examinations and adhere to the course of prescribed drug therapy.

It is also important to adhere to the principles of a healthy diet and exclude unhealthy foods from the diet. Particular attention is paid to stress and negative effects on the psycho-emotional state, because most often they are the cause of chest pain attacks.

For prevention, you must perform the following actions:

  • You should not turn to smoking again, because it leads to a narrowing of the arteries, and this provokes oxygen starvation of the heart. If the patient cannot quit smoking on his own, he should consult a doctor for help. The same should be done if the patient has addictions to alcohol.
  • If you have excess weight, you need to get rid of it – this will lead to a relief in the work of the heart, which will prevent a new attack of angina pectoris.
  • If you have diabetes, you need to take medications to lower blood sugar and undergo regular examinations.

In people who suffer from attacks of angina pectoris at rest, the risk of developing a heart attack and sudden death increases significantly, because the attack provokes a significant lesion of the coronary arteries. It is also important to treat concomitant or underlying diseases leading to an attack.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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