Biological material can be studied in many ways.
|Method||Dates||Explanation of results|
|PCR||1 working day||
|Bakposev||From 6 to 12 days||
|ELISA||Material – venous blood, during the working day, urgently in 2 hours||
Yeast in the feces: is it dangerous and does it need treatment?
Analysis for Helicobacter pylori is carried out in such cases:
- When Helicobacter pylori infection occurs, one of the family members.
- For the diagnosis of stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers, esophagus, gastritis, esophagitis, atrophic gastritis, stomach cancer, including in close relatives.
- For preventive purposes to identify patients at risk.
- In order to assess the dynamics of treatment.
- With signs of suspicion of infection. These include heaviness in the stomach, pain in the abdominal region, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, weight loss, the cause of which is unclear, the presence of blood in feces or vomit.
Diagnosis Helicobacter pylori becomes a necessity when the victim begins to notice the development of the following symptoms indicating a problem:
- There are constant problems with stool – constipation or diarrhea.
- In the abdomen, heaviness is felt.
- Belching and heartburn appear, nausea and vomiting occur.
- An unpleasant odor appears in the oral cavity in the absence of caries and other diseases.
- Allergic reactions develop.
- The impossibility of assimilation of meat by the body is noted.
- Hair loss is increasing.
- Nail plates are affected by the fungus, their fragility increases.
- With a small amount of food intake, fast saturation occurs.
- Stomach pain develops that stops eating.
When these signs appear, it is possible to assume the presence of a harmful bacterium in the body, however, specifying studies are needed to prescribe treatment. If Helicobacter is suspected, the diagnosis includes at least two tests to increase accuracy. The main methods for determining Helicobacter are:
- A blood test for the presence of antibodies to bacteria.
- Helicobacter antigen test.
- Breathing test that determines the urease activity of bacteria in the stomach.
- Detection of bacteria under a microscope during fibrogastroduodenoscopy.
Most often, blood tests and a breath test are prescribed to confirm the presence of Helicobacter in the body. In the first case, preliminary preparation is carried out eight hours before the analysis and consists of cessation of food intake, quitting smoking, drinking coffee or tea, alcohol. The essence of the analysis is to determine the available types of immunoglobulins in the body.
When certain microorganisms enter the system, immunoglobulins come into contact with them and neutralize pests. For a blood test, in this case, immunoglobulins consist of categories A, M, G and, accordingly, in the test, indicators are designated as iga, igm, igg.
In the case when the level of indicators is not higher than the established mark, they conclude that there is no infection.
Excess igg indicates a problem in the digestive tract. It should be noted that these immunoglobulins are present in the body for a certain time after the treatment, so the result can be false positive.
In this case, a re-examination is prescribed after three or four weeks. IgG immunoglobulins appear in the blood about a month after infection.
The immunoglobulins igm, iga indicate inflammatory processes in the mucous layer and indicate the onset of infection with the bacterium.
The breath test is considered the most effective diagnostic method, while it is completely safe and non-invasive. It allows not only to identify the bacterium, but also to determine the number of microorganisms. Preliminary preparation includes:
- Refusal of alcohol and the use of legumes.
- Stop taking certain medications after consulting a specialist.
- The cessation of food intake eight hours before the study, water – an hour and a half.
The procedure itself consists of a patient exhaling air into a special tube for several minutes. Urea is then introduced and the initially exhaled air is compared with air after contact with the solution.
Diagnosis of children on the subject of Helicobacter is carried out using the express method, when freshly excreted bowel movements of a child are examined. In children, a harmful bacterium is determined quite often, especially when there are infected patients in the family. Therefore, the appearance of suspicious signs requires immediate medical attention and the appointment of the necessary analysis.
Fibrogastroduodenoscopy gives a completely true result and allows not only to confirm the assumptions, but also to assess the degree of damage to the mucous layer.
Moreover, this procedure is one of the most unpleasant – the study is carried out using a probe that must be inserted inside.
However, this measure is necessary, since patients suffering from Helicobacter are more likely than others to develop cancer pathologies, the procedure allows you to take material for histological analysis.
Among the whole variety of diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori, two large groups are distinguished – invasive and non-invasive methods.
Invasive methods are based on taking biopsies during fibrogastroduodenoscopy (cytological, histological, rapid urease test).
Non-invasive methods do not require endoscopic examination (urease breath test). The most common of these are cytological, urease and histological methods.
The material for cytological examination is smear-prints of biopsy samples obtained by endoscopy from sections of the mucous membrane of the antrum of the stomach or duodenum with the most pronounced morphological changes (hyperemia, edema, etc.).
Smears are dried and stained according to Romanovsky-Giemsa, according to Papenheim or methanolazureosin mixture. With cytological diagnosis, you can not only determine the presence of the pathogen, but also judge the composition of cell infiltration by the presence of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils.
Histological examination of the biopsy specimen is characterized by high specificity – 100%, if performed by an experienced specialist. The sensitivity of the method ranges from 69% to 95% -100%.
This method has several advantages: wide availability, ease of storage and transportation of drugs and the ability to evaluate at any time by any specialist who can easily conduct a retrospective analysis. The histological method allows you to evaluate any form of coolant damage (severity of inflammation, atrophy, detection of metaplasia and mucosal dysplasia).
When taking biopsy samples, a false negative result is possible due to the heterogeneity of the localization of the bacteria on the mucosa, therefore, to reduce the likelihood of false negative results, it is recommended to take two biopsies from the antrum, two from the stomach and one from the corner of the stomach.
Formalin-fixed biopsy material embedded in paraffin is treated with monoclonal antibodies against Helicobacter pylori. Ready-to-use commercial monoclonal antibody kits work at 1: 200000 dilutions and selectively stain only Helicobacter pylori.
This method has proven itself with an extremely low degree of contamination of the gastric mucosa Helicobacter pylori, when the morphological method and urease test give false negative or questionable results.
It is also used to detect morphologically altered (coccal forms) of Helicobacter pylori, and makes it possible not only to significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the histological detection of Helicobacter pylori, but also to identify various strains of Helicobacter pylori, which is important for elucidating the nature of re-infection of the mucous membrane after an effective anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment.
UTD requires urea labeled with radioactive carbon No.С or 14С. More often in clinical practice, non-radioactive stable carbon No.C is used. 14C is used less frequently, since it is a source of radiation of low-energy b-particles that are detected by a scintillation counter.
The isotope is quantified by a gas chromatomass spectrometer or using infrared and laser equipment.
At the beginning of the study, 2 background samples of exhaled air are taken. Then the patient eats a light breakfast and a test substrate; within 1 hour, at intervals of 15 minutes, 4 samples of exhaled air are taken from him.
The level of the radioactive isotope in the exhaled air is determined within 10-30 minutes. Then the tubes are sent for mass spectrometry.
The result is expressed as an increment of #CO2 – dCO2, its excretion (‰) and is considered positive at values above 5 ‰.
- In a number of countries, the determination of the isotope ratio of concentrations No.CO2 / No.CO2 is used, which allows minimizing the influence on the final result of methodological and instrumental errors.
- When using the respiratory urease test, false-positive results are considered rare (4-10%), false-negative results are possible in patients who have taken antisecretory and bismuth-containing drugs that inhibit bacterial urease before the test, therefore it is recommended to diagnose eradication with urease methods no earlier than in a month after taking these drugs, as well as in patients with coccal forms of Helicobacter pylori.
- Quick urease test:
- The urease test (“campi test”) is one of the rapid methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori.
- The standard campaign test consists of:
- urea-containing carrier gel;
- sodium azide solution;
How to pass the analysis?
Any disease has a cause. And the effectiveness of treatment and the future health of the patient depend on how it is correctly determined. Various diagnostic methods: instrumental and laboratory help in establishing the causes of gastritis and ulcers.
Consider the main ways to identify one of the most common bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal problems – N. rulori.
It is not possible to see such a tiny organism with a length of only 2-3 microns with an eye, as well as conduct diagnostics at home.
The patient can only assume the presence of gastritis according to the relevant symptoms: epigastric pain after eating, heaviness and discomfort in the stomach, heartburn, belching with air or sour, metallic taste in the mouth. These signs of acidity very often accompany gastritis associated with a pathogenic microbe.
- But it is possible to reliably identify whether the Helicobacter pylori bacterium has settled in the body or not, only in the diagnostic department of the outpatient unit, hospital or laboratory.
- There are special methods that can detect with high reliability both the microbe itself and its metabolic products, as well as antibodies produced by the body in response to the introduction of the microbe:
- Detection of a pathogen in smears from a portion of the inner wall of the stomach or cultivation of a microorganism on nutrient media.
- Detection of antibodies in the blood, microbial antigens in the feces.
Detection of N. roulori under a microscope when coating a sample with special dyes.
- Polymerase chain reaction methods.
- Urease test, breath test.
- All of the above methods can be classified into two large groups:
- Invasive. Diagnostic methods based on endoscopic examination – FGDS, with a biopsy sample. The area of the inner wall of the stomach can then be subjected to cytological, cultural examination, to conduct a urease test.
- Non-invasive Other methods of detecting infection in which FGDS is not performed.
Before conducting a study and diagnosis of a doctor, is there a pathogenic microorganism in the stomach or not, it is necessary to take biological material from the patient. Such material may be:
- A small area of the gastric mucosa.
A piece of the mucous membrane is cleaved during fibrogastroscopy – a biopsy is performed with a special device directly during FGDS.
Further, the biopsy specimen is subjected to various studies: microscopy, culture on culture media, or express diagnostics. The methods have one goal: the detection of Helicobacter ruli or its toxins.
A blood test allows you to detect not the bacterium itself, but the immunoglobulins that are formed in the body in response to infection: IgA, IgG, IgM. decoding tests for Helicobacter pylori infection.
When N.ruli penetrates the stomach and actively multiplies it, the immune system triggers a cascade of reactions aimed at expelling the harmful microorganism. This is manifested in the production of specific antibodies that bind the microbe and tend to neutralize its toxins.
Antibodies or immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) in excess of the norm can appear a few weeks after infection, and their high level also persists for some time after successful eradication – treatment of helicobacteriosis.
Analysis of feces makes it possible to identify bacterial DNA fragments in feces using a special high-precision method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
This method is very convenient for the following categories of people: elderly, debilitated patients, people who have contraindications for performing FGDS with a biopsy, young children. It is non-invasive and painless.
The disadvantage of this method is that even after therapy and getting rid of the infection, the remains of the bacterial DNA of the deceased N. ruli continue to leave the feces, and the analysis can remain positive.
To conduct a breath test, the patient is asked to take a special solution inside containing labeled urea 13C isotopes. This aqueous solution is safe for the body.
After the patient drank it, 15 samples of exhaled air were taken for an hour at 4-minute intervals. The method is based on the ability of the pathogen to break down urea and turn it into ammonia and carbon dioxide.
This method is not available in all outpatient facilities and its cost is currently high. Its advantages are speed, painlessness and informativeness.
In vitro – translated from Greek means “in glass”. This is a set of diagnostic methods that are carried out outside the human body.
- Helicobacter pylori infection is essentially diagnosed by all methods of in vitro:
- After sampling the biopsy material, a section of the mucosa is imprinted on glass, stained and examined under a microscope – the cytological method, or the biopsy sample is placed in a special medium – a urease test.
- Using a biopsy sample of the mucosa, one can grow cell cultures in vitro or in a petri dish on special nutrient media – the microbiological method.
- A study of urine and feces in order to detect antibodies and antigens of the bacteria is also carried out in vitro, outside the human body.
Currently, there are a great many ways to detect a bacterium, its waste products and antibodies to it. Each of the methods has certain advantages and disadvantages.
Therefore, the patient is recommended to take several tests to confirm the presence of a microbe in the body, the doctor should recommend them, taking into account the specific clinical case and the technical equipment of the institution in which the diagnosis will be carried out.
Each patient must undergo FGDS with a biopsy. Further, the study of biopsy mucosa is possible under a microscope, rapid tests, or by culturing bacteria on nutrient media.
It will not be superfluous to donate blood and feces for serological diagnosis. Indeed, a high titer of the bacteria’s antibodies or its DNE fragments in the feces can become a confirmation of infection.
The breath test is a wonderful non-invasive method that allows you to reliably confirm the presence of bacteria in the body and its activity. And if you can get it in a medical institution, you should definitely use it.
Tests for Helicobacter pylori infection are given not only to identify the microorganism, but also to control the cure. What kind of research is needed is always determined by the doctor.
Exact analyzes are:
- cytological method, when the doctor observes the presence of bacteria under a microscope
- culture method – growing bacteria on nutrient media
- PCR diagnostic method or molecular genetic method – detection of genes or DNA fragments of bacteria
All these methods are based on the initial biopsy sample – a piece of gastric mucosa during FGDS. They are invasive. Without “swallowing the tube” these methods cannot be carried out.
In contrast to the methods of serological blood testing, in which antibodies are detected that indirectly indicate the presence of a microbe or enzyme methods in the body that are able to diagnose the products of its vital activity, cytology reveals the pathogen as a whole, in person.
For this study, smears of biopsy specimens of the gastric mucosa are used. It is important to take a biopsy from the most informative sites and the proposed habitats of the bacteria – most often this is the antrum.
Smears are dried, stained with special dyes and examined under a microscope. Bacteria are located in mucus, they are S-shaped or spiral-shaped, have flagella on the end of the body. The experienced eye of a diagnostic doctor will not confuse these microorganisms with any others.
The cultural method allows you to grow a whole colony of bacteria on special nutrient media. Pathogens love an environment with a low oxygen content (not more than 5%), they use blood culture media for their cultivation.
Under favorable conditions, observing the temperature regime during cultivation and anaerobic conditions, after 3-5 days round, transparent colonies of bacteria grow on the medium, which are then identified.
Doctors recommend using three, and preferably four, diagnostic methods for cytological, culture, PCR, and breathing tests to identify N. ruli for the most informative purpose.
- The list of tests should be determined by the doctor, taking into account the specific case and purpose of the study.
- For preventive purposes, without complaints from the digestive tract, you can use non-invasive diagnostic methods (without FGDS):
- blood test for serological detection of antibodies to the microbe
- fecal analysis for PCR diagnosis of DNA fragments
- breath test
Non-invasive methods are also recommended after treatment in order to clarify its effectiveness for debilitated, seriously ill patients who cannot be tested and invasive diagnostic methods.
If there are complaints from the gastrointestinal tract or suspicion of infection, it is mandatory to have FGDS followed by taking a portion of the stomach mucosa. In this case, a cytological, cultural, urease rapid test or PCR diagnosis of a biopsy is recommended.
There is no “gold standard” for microbial diagnosis. All methods complement each other, so you need to use several of them. The choice and tactics of diagnosis is the prerogative of the attending physician.
If you want to diagnose the bacterium itself or its fragments, they take a portion of the mucous membrane from the stomach with a special device during FGDS. The doctor determines the puncture site – these are the most hyperemic and swollen sections of the inner gastric wall. You can not take for research a piece from the bottom of erosion or ulcers.
If the purpose of the diagnosis is a preventive examination or assessment of the effectiveness of treatment, you can use non-invasive methods: take a blood test, feces, conduct a breath test.
Before invasive tests, the patient is required to prepare only for endoscopic examination – fibrogastroscopy.
Thus, there are 2 accurate diagnostic methods for detecting helicobacteriosis. They are the “gold standard” in modern gastroenterology. The first method is non-invasive: a urease breath test with a urea solution labeled with non-radioactive carbon; the second is invasive: FGDS with biopsy and subsequent histological examination of tissue samples.
At least 2 different studies are required to confirm infection with Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical symptoms and the results obtained in the process of laboratory and endoscopic measures.
How to pass the analysis?
For the reliability of any analysis, you need to properly prepare for it. To increase the effectiveness of any study, you should abandon antibiotics a week before delivery. Among the general rules are the following:
- Overnight, do not eat fatty and spicy foods.
- At least one day should limit smoking, alcohol, spirits, such as tea and coffee.
- In about 2 weeks, refuse to take medications that enhance intestinal activity.
As mentioned above, the urease test for Helicobacter pylori is carried out in 3 different ways. What unites them is that the first sample is taken on an empty stomach, and the subsequent ones after the use of a special solution. The conditions that must be observed in preparation for such an analysis are as follows:
- 3 days before the study, stop drinking alcoholic beverages.
- On the eve of the check, dine with low-fat and non-spicy food.
- Stop taking anti-inflammatory non-steroidal medications.
- During the day before taking the test, do not eat food that increases gas formation. Among these products stand out apples, legumes, cabbage, brown bread.
- The day before the examination, exclude factors that contribute to increased salivation. This includes smoking and chewing gum.
A blood test for Helicobacter pylori does not require special preparation. Among the general recommendations are the following:
- The night before, do not dine with oily or spicy foods.
- An hour before the proposed blood sampling procedure should not be smoked.
- If Helicobacter analysis is carried out during the day, then only after 4 hours from the last meal.
It is necessary to place the material in a sterile container, and then immediately go to the laboratory for its delivery. The recommendations for preparing for the analysis are as follows:
- 3 days before taking the material, stop taking medications that increase intestinal motility.
- Limit the use of medical candles for 3 days before analysis.
- Material sampling should be carried out after a natural act of defecation.
When preparing, you must strictly observe the following rules:
- take feces for analysis no earlier than 1 month after the last antibiotic intake;
- during the 3 days preceding the collection of the material, it is forbidden to use coloring products (tea, coffee, red and orange fruits and vegetables, turmeric, curry, soy sauce),
- exclude coarse fiber – cabbage, radish, radish, pearl barley, bran, beets;
- you can not take drugs that enhance the motor function of the intestine – Lactulose, Motilium and the like;
- give up alcohol;
- do not take antacids (Almagel and the like);
- to collect material during the first week after the onset of symptoms of the disease (further, the concentration of Helicobacter in feces decreases).
3 days are enough for preparation. At this time, it is advisable to abandon all medications (if this can not be done, tell the doctor the name and dosage). It is necessary to reduce the consumption of fish and meat, steam them or boil them. The best food at this time is cereals and dairy products, vegetable and fruit purees, weak soups, neutral natural juices (apple, white grape), fruit drinks, fruit drinks, weak tea, rosehip broth.
Intestinal ulcer: symptoms and manifestation of the disease, treatment methods
Some laboratories provide containers for analysis, including their cost in the total price. This is the best variant. Capacity for feces can be purchased at the pharmacy, the cost is several rubles. The container is sold in a sterile state, it must not be opened, wiped or rinsed. A plastic spoon is attached to the lid, with which material is gathered.
In the most extreme case, you can use a glass jar with a well-fitted lid (from under baby food). The jar needs to be washed well, and then boiled together with a lid and a spoon or other object, which will accumulate feces. If bacteria remain on the dishes, the analysis will be incorrect.
It is impossible to collect material from a toilet bowl or a diaper. The toilet should be covered with a clean plastic bag, and instead of a diaper (for a child or a bed patient), cover the oilcloth. Allowed to take material from a clean pot.
The container is filled no more than one third, close tightly with a lid. Attach a direction to the dishes or write on the label (legible) the patient’s last name and first name, year of birth.
The container with the material is delivered to the laboratory as early as possible, optimally on the day of collection. If there is no possibility of urgent delivery, storage in the refrigerator for no more than 2 days at a temperature not exceeding 4 ° C is allowed. If necessary, longer storage time the material is frozen once at a temperature of -20 ° C.
Methods of analysis and interpretation of indicators
If a qualitative analysis was carried out (determining the presence of Helicobacter bacteria in the body), then in the results form there can be only two options – “negative” or “positive”. If the analysis method involved a quantitative assessment, the norms of the results depend on the methodology, laboratory, units of measurement and other factors, therefore only the doctor can interpret the results of the analysis, he makes the final diagnosis and prescribes treatment.
When blood is taken to detect Helicobacter in the body, the concentration of immunoglobulins is determined in it. Antibodies belong to several groups: M, G and A. The instruction on how to decipher a blood test is based on the division of the result into positive and negative. The first is determined when the antibody level is above normal, and the second – with a lower value or complete absence of immunoglobulins.
Antibody General Information
Identified rarely, indicate a more serious inflammation of the stomach.
The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection.
Infection at an early stage, the recovery period or the absence of infection with negative results on other antibodies.
It is an indicator of infection at an early stage.
Indicates Helicobacter pylori infection, which is still beginning to develop in the body.
If antibodies are absent, then the person also has no infection.
They are detected with an infection that lasts already 3-4 weeks, or after a cure from it.
Indicates infection with Helicobacter pylori infection or its gradual disappearance. In the first option, there is a risk of developing an ulcer or cancer of the stomach.
Talks about the absence of Helicobacter, but the risk of peptic ulcer remains. It also indicates a recent infection due to this bacterium.
Breath test results
Helicobacter respiratory analysis is both qualitative and quantitative. If the urease activity of Helicobacter is detected, then the result is positive, otherwise it is negative. The quantitative side reflects the value that indicates the percentage of stabilized isotope in exhaled air.
- 1-3,4% – light;
- 3,5-6,4% – average;
- 6,5-9,4% – severe;
- from 9,5% – extremely difficult.
3. The norm of analysis for Helicobacter pylori
The results, depending on the type of study, can be quantitative or qualitative. Fecal analysis shows only a negative or positive result. ELISA accurately determines the presence in the blood of specific
immunoglobulins. Western blot determines their caption.
The rate may vary depending on the equipment used, as their sensitivity and diagnostic performance may vary.
Interpret the results should be a doctor, gastroenterologist or immunologist. Decryption of the analysis is quite simple, since for all analyzers there is a table of results, which is usually printed with a research sheet. However, despite the apparent simplicity, the results should be deciphered by a specialist.
A positive result means that an infection is present in the body. The exception is only a positive result for the antibody titer, which can occur during ELISA immediately after eradication of the bacterium. Even if the therapy was successful, and the bacteria are no longer in the digestive tract, antibodies or immunoglobulins can persist in the body and give positive results.
In view of this, it is not recommended to donate blood immediately after eradication. It should take at least a month. If the treatment is successful, all tests will show negative results.
Cytological is called a microscopic examination. Take it from the smears of the gastric mucosa. For the purpose of visualization, they are stained with a special dye, enlarged and examined. If the whole bacterium is observed in smears, this says that the analysis is positive and the patient is infected. Next, the degree of infection is assessed:
- – up to 20 microorganisms in the field of view;
- – up to 50 bacteria;
- – more than 50 microbes.
A mark of one plus means a weakly positive Helicobacter, that is, the bacterium is present, but the seeding is not significant. Three pluses say that bacteria are active, there are many, and the inflammation is quite strong.
Express on the enzyme bacteria urease is based on a quantitative principle. The specialist gives a positive assessment in case of a change in the color of the indicator, and the speed and degree of its manifestation is expressed by pluses from one to three.
If the color is absent or appears after a day, this means that the patient does not have Helicobacter pylori infection. If a lot of urease is released, it quickly breaks down urea and forms ammonia, alkalizing the express panel environment.
The indicator responds to changes in the environment and acquires a crimson color. The more advantages, the higher the degree of infection. So, if staining occurred within a few minutes, a mark is made in three pluses, which means significant infection. If staining occurs within two hours, the infection is moderate, and two pluses are put.
Antibodies or immunoglobulins are specific compounds that are protein in nature and circulate in the blood. They are produced by the immune system in response to infection in the body. With an increase in the number of antibodies – their titer, it makes sense to talk about a developing infection. It is worth considering that immunoglobulins can persist for a certain time and after the destruction of bacteria.
Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori from the class of immunoglobulins G do not appear in the blood immediately after infection, but after 3-4 weeks. An enzyme immunoassay reveals them when taking blood from a vein. Normally, IgG should be absent, or their titer should not exceed 1: 5. In the absence of protein fractions, we can say that there is no infection in the body. With a high titer, one can talk about the presence of bacteria or that treatment has recently been carried out.
The results of a negative test can be false positive: the antibody titer increases late about a month after infection. A person may be infected with a microbe, but ELISA will show a low titer, which will mean that the infection was recently, at least three weeks ago.
IgG titers, norms and quantitative characteristics are determined by the analysis methodology and reagents of a particular laboratory. The norm is the absence of IgG with ELISA or a titer of 1: 5 and below. However, it should be borne in mind that antibody titers can circulate in the blood for some time after cure or be late in terms of appearance during infection.
ELISA and the method for determining the titer of antibodies is, rather, an auxiliary method that complements more accurate tests: urease, cytological, fecal analysis by PCR.
A titer relative to class G immunoglobulins 1:20 indicates the presence of infection in the body. The rate is quite high. The numbers 1:20 and more indicate a significant activity of the inflammatory process that requires treatment.
Captions 1:40 are strongly positive, 1:10 are weakly positive. After treatment, the titer should decrease – this indicates its success.
4. What is the most accurate Helicobacter pylori test?
The following methods are considered the most accurate:
- Cytological, in which a specialist determines the presence of a microorganism under a microscope.
- Cultural when bacteria are grown on culture media.
- PCR diagnostics – detection of DNA fragments or genes of bacteria.
These techniques are based on taking a biopath – a piece of the gastric mucosa. They are all invasive.
For the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori, various tests can be used that demonstrate qualitative and quantitative results. Their decoding should be done by a doctor. If there are suspicions of the presence of a bacterium, or if one of the family members becomes infected, you must pass the necessary tests as soon as possible, and if necessary, start treatment in a timely manner.
The doctor conducts a general diagnosis of internal organs. Makes conclusions about violations in the digestive tract according to the results of the examination and prescribes appropriate treatment. Among the diagnoses that the specialist deals with: a stomach ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer, gastritis, dysbiosis, etc.