The reasons for the overestimated result:
- preeclampsia (edema, cramps, high blood pressure);
- multiple pregnancies;
- tumors (most often in the reproductive system);
- oncology of the respiratory system, stomach, intestines, kidneys;
- a premature pregnancy;
- taking synthetic gestagens – medications that promote the production of the female hormone progesterone (Dufaston or Utrozhestan);
- early toxicosis;
- wrong deadline;
- chromosomal pathology of the embryo (Down disease).
Underestimated rates occur when:
- ectopic pregnancy (development of the embryo in the fallopian tube);
- threatened miscarriage (2 times lower than normal);
- delayed or improper development of the embryo (Edwards disease or Patau syndrome);
- fetal death in the 2nd or 3rd trimester;
- postponed, frozen or undeveloped pregnancy;
- malfunctions in the functions of the development of the placenta;
- inaccurate pregnancy.
|Week (from conception)||Indicators, honey / ml||Notes|
|1||15 – 150||On these terms, the hCG level can increase by a couple of days immediately by 60%|
|2||50 – 156|
|3||+100 4 850 XNUMX|
|4 – 5||2 500-85 300||The placenta and blood flow between it and the uterus are formed, the uterus is rounded, the heart begins to beat|
|5 – 6||23 000-233 000|
|7||29 000-100 000||Toxemia, fatigue appears. The child already has a spinal cord and a brain, the outlines of the eyes, ears, and limbs are visible. The uterus reaches 8 cm, breast sensitivity increases.|
|8 – 11||30 000-290 000|
|12 – 16||6 200-103 000||HCG level is gradually falling|
|17 – 21||4 700-80 000||The hCG content decreases by about 5 times|
|22 – 39||2 600-78 000||The placenta begins to work fully (provides nutrition and protection of the fetus in the womb)|
It is impossible to completely protect the future mother and her child from deviations in the development of the fetus and diseases. However, often, many complications can be avoided if you just take tests and take preventative measures in time.
In the early stages, when the test for diagnosing pregnancy at home does not yet show a clear second strip, it is the laboratory blood test for hCG that helps to confirm the “interesting position”, because the concentration of the “pregnancy hormone” in the blood of a pregnant woman is higher than in the urine.
And after registration in the antenatal clinic, a study in the dynamics of blood for the hormone HCG (in combination with ultrasound) is able to determine if the fetus develops normally inside the womb.
Typically, a hCG blood test is given at 11-14 weeks of gestation (during the first comprehensive screening – “double test”) and at 16-20 weeks (during the second screening – “triple test”). In prenatal screenings, the level of b-hCG in ng / ml is determined (see table 1-a and 1-b).
Table 1-a and 1-b, respectively
Beta-hCG is a component of chorionic gonadotropin, a quantitative assessment of which is aimed at determining abnormalities in the development of the fetus.
It is especially important to conduct a blood test for gonadotropin in the first trimester of pregnancy with a threat of miscarriage. Monitoring the fetus every week, making pelvic ultrasound is a risk for the baby, because excessive ultrasound can adversely affect the course of pregnancy, since the harmlessness of the ultrasound has not yet been proven. But a blood test for hCG is considered a harmless way to monitor the development of pregnancy.
A blood test for hCG is also prescribed if there is a suspicion of a dead and / or ectopic pregnancy.
- How often is prescribed to donate blood to human chorionic gonadotropin in the first trimester
- What level before pregnancy
- HCG blood – how to donate: on an empty stomach or not, is it possible to drink water before analysis?
- Can an hCG blood test show an ectopic pregnancy and what is the level of hCG in the blood during an ectopic pregnancy?
- Definition of conception by blood fluid
- Deciphering the result of a blood test for hCG during pregnancy
- HCG with anembryo
How often is prescribed to donate blood to human chorionic gonadotropin in the first trimester
1 trimester (from the moment of fertilization to 14 weeks)
- general analysis of urine and blood;
- blood group and Rh factor (with negative Rh, the husband donates blood to the group and Rh factor);
- blood biochemical analysis (total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, liver enzymes (AST, ALT), total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, total cholesterol);
- coagulogram or blood coagulation (fibrinogen, platelets, platelet aggregation, coagulation time, bleeding time, prothrombin index, APTT – activated partial thromboplastin time);
- blood for syphilis (RW reaction);
- blood for HIV infection and viral hepatitis (B and C);
- swab from the vagina and from the cervix to the microflora (fungi and gonococci) and cytological examination;
- screening for genital infections (according to indications): chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and others;
- double test (in the period of 11-14 weeks): determination of plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and beta-hCG to exclude severe malformations (Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome);
- blood for rubella and toxoplasmosis (detection of antibodies of type M and G).
2 trimester (from 14 to 28 weeks)
- general urinalysis at each appearance;
- general blood test before going on maternity leave (30 weeks);
- coagulogram according to indications;
- biochemical blood test before the decree;
- smear from the vagina and from the cervix to the microflora (fungi and gonococcus), cytological smear according to indications;
- blood for HIV infection and viral hepatitis, syphilis before maternity;
- blood for antibodies, PCR of urine, vaginal discharge for rubella, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis;
- triple test: beta-CG, estriol and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 16-18 weeks.
The first analysis can be done at the first delay of the menstrual cycle. Then, doctors recommend doing several examinations at 8-14 weeks to have a complete picture of how the pregnancy is proceeding.
- For routine monitoring of a pregnant woman.
- If you suspect an ectopic conception.
- During a comprehensive examination to identify pathologies in the fetus (at 16-20 weeks).
There is nothing perfect. In the analysis, there is also a risk of getting a false result due to improper actions of a woman or medical staff. The result can be false positive and false negative.
The reasons for the false-positive result (the woman is not pregnant, and the test shows the opposite):
- Cancer of the breast, ovary, stomach.
- Hormonal disbalance.
- Long-term use of hormonal drugs for infertility.
About 2% of women receive a false-positive response.
Causes of a false negative result (a woman is pregnant, but the test does not reveal it):
- An early test was performed.
- Ectopic pregnancy.
- Late fixation of the embryo in the uterine endometrium.
- Death of a baby in the womb.
- Risk of miscarriage.
- Problems in the development of the placenta.
- Poor blood sampling by a laboratory assistant.
To obtain an accurate result, it is recommended that several blood sampling procedures be performed on hCG after 2-3 days.
It is possible, subject to certain conditions:
- do not eat 6 hours before analysis;
- limit physical activity;
- consult with your doctor about the use of hormonal drugs on this day.
What level before pregnancy
Regardless of whether you plan to have a baby or not, delayed menstruation always causes exciting emotions in women. And the first thing to do in this case is to determine whether conception has occurred, namely, to pass tests for pregnancy. The most common and affordable way are home express tests.
What kind of research is this? What does it show? How to determine pregnancy by a blood test? When and how to take it? Let’s get it right.
Laboratory blood tests to determine conception reveal a special hormone in the body of a woman – human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). It is produced by the shell of the embryo – the chorion, and begins to be excreted into the body from the first hours of cell fertilization. And if this hormone is present in the body – there is also conception.
Rapid pregnancy tests also determine the level of hCG, showing the same second strip, but the concentration of this hormone in the urine is much lower and rises at a much lower rate.
Therefore, a more accurate study to determine fertilization is considered to be a blood test, which can detect conception already 2-5 days after fertilization.
While test strips – only after a week.
Did you know? The concentration of hCG levels in serum is much higher than in urine, almost 2 times.
For the normal development of the fetus, the level of this hormone in a woman is very important, because it also indicates the success of the growth and development of the fetus, therefore it is necessary to monitor it throughout the entire period of gestation.
It is very important to monitor its level throughout the entire period of expectation of the child, since it can indicate possible pathologies in the development of the fetus. The first screening is done from the 11th to the 14th week of pregnancy, where the PAPP-A plasma protein is also examined and an ultrasound of the embryo is performed, which determines the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.
Repeated studies, the second screening, is carried out at 16-20 weeks. The data obtained are not the final diagnosis, and only determine the risk group and prescribe additional studies. It should also be noted that determining the level of hCG is only part of the study, which in itself is not a reliable screening.
Deviations from the norm can occur with serious problems such as a frozen or ectopic pregnancy, the threat of failure (in the early stages), pathologies in the development of the fetus, multiple pregnancy, etc.
Important! In non-pregnant women, a high level of hCG may indicate a number of oncological diseases (tumors of the mammary glands, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, etc.).
An analysis is given in the morning on an empty stomach by taking blood from a vein. If you pass it in the afternoon, then on the eve it is recommended to abstain from food for 4-6 hours. In case of taking hormonal drugs, it is necessary to warn the doctor about this. It is also recommended to exclude severe physical exertion, nervous shocks and physiotherapeutic procedures a day before visiting the laboratory.
It is also necessary to know that with multiple pregnancies, the hCG rate will be increased by a multiple of the number of embryos. The level of this hormone rapidly increases every 10 days until the 7th week, after which it stabilizes for a while and begins to gradually decrease until the time of birth.
The hCG norm tables by week, widely distributed on the Internet, clearly demonstrate such dynamics.
На 1-2-й неделе уровень гормона небольшой и составляет, в среднем, от 50 до 300 мЕд/мл.
В дальнейшие 7 недель он продолжает стремительно расти, достигая своего пика на 7-8-й неделе, когда показатель верхней границы нормы составляет 200 000 мЕд/мл.
И дальнейшие два триместра ожидания ребенка идет постепенное снижение до 10 000 – 60 000 мЕд/мл на момент родов. При этом для определения срока берется дата последних месячных, а не дата зачатия.
Знаете ли вы? Гормон ХГЧ присутствует также в мужском организме, стимулируя выработку половых гормонов и сперматозоидов. Его уровень составляет около 2 мЕд/мл.
Помните – наиболее достоверную расшифровку данных может дать только ваш лечащий врач. Потому что диапазон нормы достаточно широк и нужно учитывать ряд индивидуальных факторов.
И какой-то показатель для одной женщины может быть подозрением на патологические процессы, а для другой – вполне укладываться в пределы нормы.
Поэтому только врач, знающий все особенности вашего организма, способен делать выводы и назначать последующие шаги.
Низкий показатель данного гормона при анализе крови на беременность на ранних сроках говорит о достаточно опасных и патологичных состояниях:
- гормональный сбой у женщины;
- внематочная беременность;
- внутриутробная гибель плода;
- угроза выкидыша;
- патологии в развитии эмбриона.
На поздних сроках это может быть свидетельством перенашивания ребенка. В любом случае, настоящую причину определяет врач, опираясь на дополнительные исследования.
Повышенный показатель ХГЧ може быть при:
- многоплодной беременности;
- приеме гормональных препаратов;
- диабете у женщины;
- патологиях развития эмбриона.
При получении результатов не стоит делать поспешные выводы. Отклонения от нормы в любую стороны часто могут быть вызваны неверным определением срока беременности. И только врач принимает решение о дальнейших действиях.
И первое, что он назначает – это повторное исследование, потому что очень важно отслеживать уровень данного гормона в динамике. Также для дальнейших выводов проводят дополнительную диагностику, основой которой является УЗИ.
Хоть и очень редко (с вероятностью меньше 2%), ошибочные данные анализа получают, когда была нарушена процедура сбора материала в лаборатории, или ошибка в определении срока беременности.
В любом случае, если у вас возникают сомнения, проконсультируйтесь со своим гинекологом и пройдите ряд необходимых дополнительных исследований.
Но наибольшую точность в определении зачатия дает УЗИ. Уже с 4-й недели срока внутривагинальный датчик визуализирует плодное яйцо размером около 2 мм. И позже (с 5-6-й недели) дает возможность подтвердить образование желточного мешочка, прикрепление эмбриона в полость матки и жизнеспособность плода. В совокупности, уровень ХГЧ и УЗИ дают возможность выявить все возможные патологии на ранних сроках.
В некоторых случаях, рекомендуют также сдать анализ на еще один гормон – прогестерон. Он не только показывает наличие оплодотворения, а также является важным показателем успешного сохранения и роста эмбриона.
Многие женщины, особенно сильно желающие стать мамой, утверждают, что чувствуют, когда происходит волшебный момент зачатия. Другие замечают только те изменения в теле, которые тяжело игнорировать (задержку месячных, например).
И те, и другие в итоге прибегают к современным методам исследования, первыми в списке которых стоят домашние тесты, которые подтвердили свою эффективность, и в 90% случаев дают правильный результат.
А как вы узнали о своей беременности? Когда и сколько раз за период вынашивания ребенка отслеживали уровень гормонов? Напишите о своем опыте в комментариях.
На протяжении всего срока беременности будущим мамам рекомендуется сдавать много анализов, необходимых для того, чтобы вести динамическое наблюдение за состоянием собственного здоровья и растущего малыша.
A blood test is the most common type of study, thanks to which you can establish the conception of the fetus, determine its age, level of development, the presence of pathologies of pregnancy.
Blood is the most important indicator of a state of health. Her regular delivery during the expectation of the child allows you to determine any changes in the systems and organs, as well as fix the conception of the fetus and the beginning of a new life in the mother’s body.
A blood test for pregnancy is the most informative and sure way to establish the fact of conception of a child. Rapid pharmacy tests used at home, even with high sensitivity to the human chorionic human gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the female body, have a high degree of error, leaving a chance for an erroneous result.
This test is prescribed not only to confirm the beginning of an “interesting situation”, but also in order to exclude the likelihood of a baby developing outside the uterine cavity and early developmental pathologies. This study also allows you to establish the exact age of the developing fetus.
If a woman knows the date of conception of the baby, she can visit the laboratory to deliver the material after a week.
If the expectant mother does not have exact data on the date of conception, this can be done during the first week after the delay of menstruation.
At the very beginning of its development, after the attachment of an embryonic egg to the wall of the uterus, the amount of chorionic gonadotropin in the mother’s body doubles every day.
If conception has come, it will show the level of hCG. Such a study allows us to establish the age of the fetus, not only in weeks, but also in days. This information, as well as data on the development of the baby, obtained using ultrasound diagnostics, allows you to most accurately set the estimated date of birth.
For research, material is taken from a vein. The process of taking material takes a few seconds and does not threaten the health of mom and baby.
HCG blood – how to donate: on an empty stomach or not, is it possible to drink water before analysis?
Blood is drawn from a vein on an empty stomach in the morning on an empty stomach. For a day you need to give up fried, fatty foods and physical activity, for 10 hours – give up any food. Inform the doctor about the medication and, if necessary, cancel them at the time of the test.
To determine the level of hCG, blood is taken from a vein. It is recommended for the purity of the results to donate blood for analysis in the morning on an empty stomach (provided that the last meal was at least 8 hours ago).
Remember that tea / coffee and juice / fruit drink are also food, so only mineral water can be drunk in the morning. And the day before the test, it is advisable not to eat fatty fried foods.
To study blood for changes in the level of hCG in dynamics, you should donate blood at the same time of the day, preferably in the morning.
But if in the morning there is no way to visit the laboratory, then you can carry out the analysis every day, at about the same time, but the last meal should be at least 4-5 hours before the test.
Just before the blood sampling, you need to calm down and sit quietly for 5-10 minutes.
Reception of a synthetic progestogen can increase the level of hCG, so warn the laboratory assistant in advance.
It is necessary to undergo an ultrasound and donate blood during a comprehensive screening of the 1st and 2nd trimester on the same day or at least like this: do an ultrasound, and the next morning – donate blood for hCG, but no later than 3 days after the ultrasound .
If you feel weakness, dizziness and other fainting sensations before collecting a blood test, notify the nurse about this in advance and then the blood will be taken from you in a lying position.
This study will give 100% accurate results if properly prepared. Doctors recommend donating blood from a vein exclusively on an empty stomach, that is, without eating food in the morning. In addition, the most accurate time for taking blood is considered to be from 8 to 10 in the morning. This is due to the fact that after sleep the maximum amount of hCG in the blood. You can drink water early in the morning and even in line for the delivery of the hormone. It does not affect the results.
Can an hCG blood test show an ectopic pregnancy and what is the level of hCG in the blood during an ectopic pregnancy?
Factors affecting the content of hCG in the blood:
- Pregnancy Twins or Triplets
- Ectopic pregnancy
- The presence of diseases and malformations of the child
- Early toxicosis
- Frozen pregnancy
- Incorrect pregnancy
- Hormonal medication
- Blood donation after meals
So in the first weeks of pregnancy, the level of hCG doubles every 2-3 days. At a period of 8-9 obstetric weeks (or 6-7 weeks from conception), it ceases to grow and then begins to decline slowly.
For diagnostic value, the level of hCG in the blood of a woman is important only until the 20th week of pregnancy.
The standards for hCG levels vary depending on the method of analysis in a particular laboratory. Therefore, it is important to carry out blood tests always in the same laboratory. Check with your laboratory assistant or doctor who ordered you to get a blood test for acceptable levels of hCG levels in your week of pregnancy.
Below are the normative values of hCG of various medical institutions, including the independent Invitro laboratory, which has branches in many cities of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine (see table 2-4).
Definition of conception by blood fluid
A blood test for pregnancy in the early stages is carried out in order to exclude a variety of pathologies. It also shows the exact amount of the hormone responsible for the attachment and development of the embryo. Keep in mind that this study is conducted only from the time of delay. An exception is in vitro fertilization.
Pregnancy can be detected by the presence of a certain hormone. After fertilization, the female egg enters the uterine cavity.
It engages the endometrial layer with the membrane that appeared after conception. Between the endometrium and the zygote, a thin chorionic tissue appears. She temporarily performs the functions of the placenta in the pregnant period.
From the moment of its formation, the development of chorionic gonadotropin occurs.
The substance in the people may be called the hormone of pregnancy. It is able to gradually increase. With its help, you can quickly determine whether conception has occurred or not.
The presence of chorionic gonadotropin will show a pregnancy test. The test strip is treated with a reagent that interacts with the hormone at 25 units. If the amount of gonadotropin is less, a pregnancy test will not determine it. For this reason, to determine pregnancy, you need to visit the laboratory. It carries out a blood test for pregnancy.
First of all, you need to understand what kind of blood test shows pregnancy. To determine the onset of conception, a general study of the fluid is used. It notes the level of various substances and hormones. A sample is taken from a vein for the following reasons:
- definition of conception;
- the exception of ectopic fixation;
- Tracking a frozen pregnancy
- the presence of hormonal failure.
If a woman has all the signs of a conception, and test strips do not give a positive result, the reason may be an ectopic pregnancy. The pathology is characterized by the attachment of a fertilized egg in the fallopian tube.
Chorion in this case will be small. Hormone production is negligible. The development of the disease can only establish a blood test to determine pregnancy. If the procedure gave a positive answer, the woman needs additional medical examination.
The growth of chorionic gonadotropin occurs gradually. There is such a pathology as a frozen pregnancy. The process of embryo development for unknown reasons is terminated.
It stops growth, after a while death occurs. Since that time, the content of the hormonal substance in the blood decreases.
A pathological pregnancy by a blood test can be established after a second examination.
In addition to determining pregnancy, the analysis allows you to determine the development of hormonal failure and various viral infections. To do this, you need to know how it decrypts.
Many patients know that the gestational age can be determined by the growth of chorionic gonadotropin. For this purpose tables are used. In different laboratories, the data may differ by several units. Total numbers are in the first trimester.
From the moment of blastocyst fixation, the hormone begins to increase actively. Every day, the numbers double. These facts help to clarify the time of home testing. Given that most tests have a sensitivity of 25 units, they can be used from the first day of the estimated delay.
This fact is explained simply. The female reproductive cell goes a certain way from ovulation to conception. After removing the cell from the follicular bag, it enters the space of the abdominal cavity. In the peritoneum, the egg is no more than eight hours.
The average travel time is 5 days. It takes 1 day to consolidate. From the sixth day, between the endometrium and the cyst, a chorion appears. Doubling the hormone leads to 30 units on the 9th day after the development of chorion.
This day is the second day of the delay of the menstrual cycle. On this day, you can test.
The amount of chorionic gonadotropin can easily establish an approximate day of conception. Doctors also examine the course of gestation and fetal development.
- the threat of spontaneous abortion;
- lack of visualization of the embryo in the cavity of the ovum;
- exfoliation of the placental neoplasm;
- early fetal death.
The main reason for the decline in gonadotropin levels during the study is the threat of spontaneous abortion. A miscarriage can happen for a variety of reasons. Pathology can be established by additional signs.
Modern gynecologists often encounter the problem of the absence of an embryo in the cavity of the ovum. With the normal development of pregnancy, the heartbeat of the embryo should be visualized from 5-6 weeks.
If the doctor does not detect additional heart rate, a procedure is prescribed for the woman. According to a blood test, you can track the growth of the hormone.
In later stages, this analysis is necessary to monitor placenta attachment. From the second trimester, the amount of substance stabilizes. Blood gives a permanent result.
Before birth, the hormone may increase slightly. A decrease in the constant indicator occurs against the background of a partial detachment of the placental neoplasm.
In some patients, during pregnancy, a sharp drop in the level of the chorionic substance occurs. This phenomenon indicates intrauterine death of the embryo. Pathology needs additional confirmation. Only after receiving a repeated negative result is vacuum cleaning performed.
Not always pathological is a decrease in gonadotropin. The problem can be identified by high blood counts. The reasons for the increase in the hormone can be in the following processes:
- conception of several embryos;
- cystic drift;
- diabetic disease;
- chromosomal genetic problems.
In many situations, a high content of the substance occurs due to multiple pregnancy. The presence of several fruits entails the formation of two or more chorions. Each chorion produces the hormone necessary to maintain the life of one fetal egg. The summation of hormones leads to high results.
But there are also negative reasons for this phenomenon. Bubble skid also increases the amount of hormone. To prolong the viability of the fetus, the chorion enhances its activity. Because of this, gonadotropin rises.
With diabetes, the function of the entire hormonal system suffers. Patients with a history of diabetes need careful monitoring of health by doctors. They must be tested monthly. This will allow you to timely determine the pathological lesion of the hormonal system.
Also, chorionic gonadotropin increases with the development of genetic pathology in a child. Chromosomal damage is established during the screening and analysis of blood fluid.
If blood at the 12th week of pregnancy shows high hormone results, re-screening for Down syndrome should be done.
Women ask if a general blood test can show pregnancy. Establishment of conception allows only hormonal study.
In order to correctly establish the possible process of conception, you should pass a separate analysis for the hormone of pregnancy. This is a response to how a blood test determines pregnancy.
According to a general analysis, a doctor can judge the nature of gestation. For this, the quantitative ratio of various blood cells is studied. The specialist studies the characteristics of such substances as:
- red blood cells;
The behavior of cells in the fluid is also established. If the quantity of any substances is disturbed, additional diagnostic measures are required. This should be able to establish the cause of the ailment.
The analysis is carried out according to special rules. Doctors require patients to observe a fasting regimen. The hormone can be determined only with a low glucose content. Popularly, this substance is called sugar.
For this purpose, you should abandon the use of various foods 7-8 hours before the appointed procedure. Patients ask if it is possible to drink before analysis. A few hours before the study should stop taking water, tea and other drinks.
This will allow gonadotropin to gain the desired concentration in the blood.
When can a blood sample be taken? All experts believe that the highest concentration of hCG in the blood is observed in the morning. Thanks to this feature, a woman can easily endure hours of hunger strike. If the woman does not follow the rules, the analysis will show an incorrect result.
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Blood collection is carried out from a vein located on the elbow. To study, you need no more than 10 ml of liquid. You can avoid large blood loss during the analysis process using a special tourniquet.
The injection site is carefully treated with an antiseptic solution. After the procedure, the elbow must be bent. This will avoid strong blood circulation in the limb. After a blood test for pregnancy, decryption is performed in the laboratory.
The woman receives the results on the same day.
Pregnancy can be determined in various ways. The most effective method is taking blood for analysis. He can accurately determine the duration and characteristics of gestation.
HCG is primarily found in the blood, and then in the urine.
Therefore, to confirm pregnancy, the best test will be a blood test.
The examination can be carried out already on the 6-14th day after fertilization (most often on the 11th) or on the 4-7th day of the delay of the menstrual cycle. The answer will be ready from 2 to 24 hours.
Deciphering the result of a blood test for hCG during pregnancy
Some laboratories do not have their own staff and are only intermediaries. In this case, samples are taken to an equipped laboratory. Then the tests will take several days.
The first trip to the gynecologist in order to register for pregnancy, is often accompanied by the issuance of a list of directions for the delivery of various tests.
One of them is the detection of hCG levels.
A decrease in the concentration of hCG in the blood of a pregnant woman occurs for the following reasons:
- the threat of spontaneous abortion (in other words, with the threat of miscarriage), when there is a deviation from the norm by more than 50%;
- ectopic or missed pregnancy (the level of hCG increases very slowly or stops growing up to 9 weeks of pregnancy);
- chronic placental insufficiency.
To increase the concentration of the hormone in the blood of a pregnant woman leads:
- multiple pregnancy (the level of hCG increases in proportion to the number of fetuses);
- early toxicosis or gestosis;
- intrauterine infection;
- diabetes in a pregnant woman;
- cystic drift;
- fetal pathology at the chromosomal level (for example, with Down syndrome and other malformations);
- intake of synthetic gestagen.
Usually in women with an irregular menstrual cycle or with late ovulation, the date of conception can differ significantly from the date suggested by doctors. And such a mismatch between the established pregnancy period and the real one is displayed in the blood test by an increase in the level of hCG.
A high level of hCG only in combination with a decrease in the level of AFP can indicate the likelihood of the presence of Down syndrome in the fetus (see table 5).
HCG with anembryo
The level of hCG can continue to grow even with a pathological course of pregnancy. The main way to make sure that the baby is alive and well is to undergo an “plus” ultrasound to hear the fetal heartbeat. The heart begins to be listened from 3 weeks from conception (or from 5 obstetric weeks of pregnancy).