Algorithm for first aid for stroke before the ambulance arrives

There are plenty of reasons for acute circulatory disorders in the brain. Not a single person is safe from the occurrence of pathology. The appearance of a stroke is caused, as a rule:

  • cerebral vascular thrombosis;
  • rupture of blood vessels;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • arrhythmias;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • diabetes;
  • aneurysm;
  • obesity and overeating;
  • the presence of addictions: smoking, alcohol abuse;
  • prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives;
  • bleeding disorder.

Manifestations of the disease depend on the type of attack. A stroke can be ischemic and hemorrhagic. The first develops against the background of narrowing or clogging of the artery with a thrombus. The occurrence of hemorrhagic, or hemorrhage in the brain, is caused by a violation of the integrity of the vessel.

A stroke is accompanied by the following general symptoms:

  • malaise;
  • numbness of half of the body;
  • the dull, blurry, or disappeared vision of one eye;
  • severe headache;
  • unexplained dizziness;
  • shaky gait;
  • falls;
  • fainting and fainting conditions;
  • speech impairment.

Each type of attack is characterized by certain symptoms. Ischemic stroke is usually accompanied by dizziness and headache, weakness of one side of the body, blurred vision, speech problems, cramps and numbness of the upper and lower extremities, nausea and vomiting, increased anxiety and delirium.

Ischemia is diagnosed three times more often than a hemorrhagic stroke and can develop for three days. As a rule, it ends with body paralysis.

Hemorrhages are sudden, as they are caused by rupture of the vessel due to sharply elevated pressure. An attack occurs in the evening. Its first signs are dizziness and nausea.

With hemorrhagic stroke, the appearance of:

  • disorientation in time and space;
  • stunnedness;
  • problems with speech;
  • increased pulsation of the cervical arteries;
  • excessive sweating;
  • surges in pressure and body temperature;
  • sudden fainting;
  • unilateral paralysis;
  • breathing with wheezing;
  • vomiting;
  • turning the eyes in the opposite direction of the paralyzed s >

To assist with the appearance of such symptoms is necessary in the shortest possible time. In order to recognize the pathology, it is necessary to ask the patient to do the following:

  1. raise both upper limbs. If it is a stroke, the amplitude of one of the hands will be less;
  2. say something or smile. In case of acute circulatory disturbance in the brain, the smile will be asymmetric, and speech impaired;
  3. stick out tongue. When an attack occurs, it shifts to one side.

Regardless of where and who the attack occurred, others should act in accordance with a clear algorithm. Not only the life of the victim, but also his further performance will depend on how timely and correctly you act.

  1. First you need to pack up, calm down and forget about the panic.
  2. Next, you need to evaluate the general condition of the patient: pulse, respiration, consciousness, pressure.
  3. Having identified the obvious signs of pathology: impaired speech, unilateral paralysis, a distorted face, cramps, lack of consciousness, immediately call an ambulance.
  4. If the person is conscious, try to find out the circumstances of the disease.
  5. Get ready for resuscitation (indirect heart massage, artificial respiration).
  6. Lay the victim on his side or back, and then lift the head end and body.
  7. Provide access to fresh air.
  8. Do not forget to monitor the condition of the patient.
  9. Be prepared to take the injured person to the nearest medical facility.

When providing first aid at home or at work, the patient should be properly placed. If the patient is conscious, lay him on his back, raise his head and chest.

If the person is in an unconscious state, lay him on his side, while turning his head to the side. The same situation should be with vomiting and convulsions.

During transportation or resuscitation, lay the person on his back and tilt his head back a little. In no case do not turn the patient on his stomach and do not lower his head below the position of the body.

Convulsive syndrome, characterized by intense tension throughout the body or intermittent twitching of the limbs, is a sign of a severe stroke. In this case, it is necessary to lay the patient on one side and in order to exclude the ingress of saliva and vomit into the respiratory tract, turn his head.

If possible, place any object wrapped in cloth between the upper and lower jaw. It is not always possible to do this, therefore it is not worth making great efforts – they will do more harm than good.

Do not try to spread your jaw with your fingers, this is impossible. In this case, you should grab the corners of the lower jaw and try to bring it forward. In no case do not insert your fingers into the patient’s mouth, this is fraught with injury – loss of a finger.

Keep the patient in this position until the syndrome resolves. Be prepared for convulsions to reappear.

If the patient is conscious, try to find out exactly how he got sick. This is important, as some symptoms may be a manifestation of other pathologies, in particular intoxication with alcohol or other toxic substances, brain tumors, diabetes, traumatic brain injury.

An extremely severe attack, accompanied by damage to vital centers, cerebral edema, occurs with signs of clinical death: lack of breathing, cardiac arrest, dilated pupils. The expansion of only one pupil signals a stroke or hemorrhage in the hemisphere on the affected side. It is necessary to act quickly and as correctly as possible.

  1. It is necessary to lay the victim on a hard surface, on his back.
  2. Next, turn your head to the side, and then release the oral cavity from mucus and foreign objects (blood clots, prostheses).
  3. Tilt your head back, try to open the patient’s mouth (grabbing the lower jaw with the second and fifth fingers of both hands and pushing it forward).
  4. Artificial respiration is carried out in the following way. It is necessary to cover the patient’s lips with any material and leaning against his own, perform two deep breaths.
  5. The technique of indirect massage is as follows. It is necessary to place the right hand on the left and connect your fingers into the lock. Place your lower palm in the area where the middle and lower chest connects. Exercise pressure (approximately 100 per minute). Every thirty pressures should be alternated with two deep breaths.

First aid at home for the patient, depending on the type of attack, may vary slightly. Actions for ischemic stroke should be as follows:

  • lay the victim, raise the head end;
  • provide complete peace;
  • watch for normal breathing;
  • to prevent sticking of the tongue, turn the patient’s head to the side
  • take a soft brush or washcloth and rub it with the limbs of the patient;
  • give Glycine or Piracetam if necessary.

In case of a hemorrhagic attack, proceed as follows:

  • lay the victim on the bed, raise the head end;
  • if the attack occurred on the street, then do not move the person, but lay him on the ground, and put a roller under his head;
  • provide fresh air, unfasten squeezing clothes;
  • if there are dentures in the oral cavity, in order to exclude aspiration, remove them;
  • the patient’s head must be turned to the side;
  • clean your mouth from vomit;
  • on the side of the head opposite the affected, apply cold;
  • cover the upper and lower limbs with a plaid, this will help maintain blood circulation in them;
  • rub the limbs in which the sensitivity and motor activity of the oil-alcohol solution are impaired (in a 2: 1 ratio).

What not to do

If a stroke is suspected, some measures are contraindicated. The first thing that can never be done is to force the patient to walk or move him from one place to another.

It is contraindicated to use ammonia or acid-containing drugs. Do not give the patient any medications other than those indicated in the emergency procedure.

And most importantly – do not give up qualified medical care. Do not forget that the more time passes from the onset of an attack, the greater part of the brain will die. Only 20% of neurons can recover and only with serious rehabilitation.

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Risk Factors and Types of Stroke

This disease does not occur spontaneously, other diseases and a person’s lifestyle affect its appearance. The risk of acute circulatory disorders in the brain increases with:

  • arterial hypertension;
  • heart and vascular defects;
  • elevated cholesterol;
  • diabetes.

Also, indirect causes of stroke can be alcoholism and smoking, malnutrition, work in hazardous work, heredity.

In medicine, several types of stroke are distinguished, however, it is not enough for doctors to know two of them, as the most common.

  1. Ischemic stroke – affects mainly the category of the population over the age of 60 years. It manifests itself as a result of blockage of the cerebral artery by a thrombus or fat clot, which causes nerve cell nutrition to be disturbed and their death to occur. The prerequisites for the occurrence of this type of stroke are thrombosis, vascular insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis.
  1. Hemorrhagic stroke – appears as a result of a violation of the integrity of the vessel (rupture) and hemorrhage in the surrounding brain tissue. The cause is usually hypertension. A sharp jump in pressure in a stressful situation may well lead to rupture of an artery in the brain.

Separately, it is worth mentioning the micro-stroke. This condition occurs with short-term spasm of cerebral vessels. If normal blood supply is restored within six hours, then the cells in the affected area will not have time to die, if not, an extensive stroke develops with serious consequences. A micro stroke is signaled by:

  • loss of sensitivity in some areas of the skin;
  • severe headache;
  • general weakness;
  • hearing and vision impairment;
  • loss of balance.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.