Adult blood disease symptoms and treatment

Regardless of who has a blood disorder, the symptoms in adults and children are much the same, and the treatment methods are almost the same.

Given the type of tumor (and this can be ascertained using a diagnosis), treatment is prescribed. It is impossible to delay the therapy, since the disease can progress very quickly. Treatment must be carried out under the supervision of a doctor in a hematological hospital.

Of course, the main way is a course of chemotherapy. They also use blood transfusion, the prevention of infectious complications, and the reduction of intoxication.

The latest invention is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This treatment method gives excellent results. After surgery, the immune system recovers and improves even in those patients who have been poorly helped with medications.

What is the treatment for leukemia? First, you should identify the form of the disease. If the patient is chronic, it is recommended from time to time to visit a doctor and undergo the necessary therapeutic therapy. In the case of acute leukemia, the patient will have to be treated with special drugs for a long time.

Drug treatment includes the use of antitumor agents and special hormones (glucocorticoid), usually in large quantities. There are times when a patient needs a bone marrow transplant. There are enough ways to recover, the main thing is to choose the right approach to the elimination of malignant tumors.

It is very important to treat the infection that has arisen and to do a blood transfusion if necessary. Cancer treatment will last a lifetime, therefore it is better to prevent the disease or not provoke its occurrence at all.

The change is controlled by the doctor through analysis. The stage of the disease and prognosis are established, and then, in accordance with the results obtained, further treatment is prescribed.

Often with a chronic form of leukemia, radiation therapy or the administration of radioactive substances is prescribed. Usually, after the end of treatment for acute leukemia, the patient is monitored. In some cases, relapses or worsening occur. Therefore, it is very important to visit specialists in a timely manner.

The main treatment for leukemia is chemotherapy. It aims to destroy cancer cells. It is prescribed, as a rule, in the first month of treatment, and then it is used as maintenance therapy. This method of treatment can last for years depending on the condition of the patient.

Another major component of treatment is nutrition. It must contain vitamins and carbohydrates to support the immune system. It is advisable to eat only boiled and stewed vegetables and fruits. Fried and smoked should be excluded. Try to eat as many trace elements, proteins and fats as possible (as recommended by your healthcare provider).

Salt can harm the body, so eliminate it or use it in minimal amounts. If you start treatment on time, then you have a chance to return to a normal lifestyle without fear of relapse.

Treatment of leukemia is carried out by hematologists in specialized oncohematological clinics in accordance with accepted protocols, in compliance with clearly defined terms, main stages and volumes of treatment and diagnostic measures for each form of the disease. The goal of treating leukemia is to obtain prolonged complete clinical and hematological remission, restore normal blood formation and prevent relapse, and if possible, completely cure the patient.

Acute leukemia requires the immediate start of an intensive course of treatment. As a basic method for leukemia, multicomponent chemotherapy is used, to which acute forms are most sensitive (the effectiveness in ALL is 95%, AML

80%) and childhood leukemia (up to 10 years). To achieve the remission of acute leukemia due to the reduction and eradication of leukemia cells, combinations of various cytostatic drugs are used. During the period of remission, prolonged (for several years) treatment continues in the form of fixing (consolidating), and then supporting chemotherapy with the addition of new cytostatics to the regimen. For the prevention of neuroleukemia during remission, intrathecal and intralumbal local administration of chemotherapy and irradiation of the brain are indicated.

Treatment of AML is problematic due to the frequent development of hemorrhagic and infectious complications. A more favorable promyelocytic form of leukemia, which goes into complete clinical and hematological remission under the action of stimulators of differentiation of promyelocytes. In the stage of complete remission of AML, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (or stem cell injection) is effective, which allows 55-70% of cases to achieve 5-year survival without relapse.

In chronic leukemia in the preclinical stage, constant monitoring and general strengthening measures (a complete diet, a rational regime of work and rest, elimination of insolation, physiotherapy) are enough. Without exacerbation of chronic leukemia, substances are prescribed that block the tyrosine kinase activity of the Bcr-Abl protein; but they are less effective in the phase of acceleration and blast crisis. In the first year of the disease, the introduction of a-interferon is advisable. In CML, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from a related or unrelated HLA donor can give good results (60% of cases of complete remission for 5 or more years). With exacerbation, mono- or polychemotherapy is immediately prescribed. Perhaps the use of irradiation of the lymph nodes, spleen, skin; and for certain indications – splenectomy.

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As symptomatic measures for all forms of leukemia, hemostatic and detoxification therapy, infusion of platelet and leukocyte mass, antibiotic therapy are used.

The treatment of leukemia depends on various factors, such as the type of disease (acute or chronic leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid), the age and physical condition of the patient, the presence of other diseases.

The main forms of therapy include:

  • Chemotherapy: is the main treatment for leukemia and is based on the use of a medication or a combination of drugs administered orally or intravenously to kill diseased cells.
  • Targeted therapy: it is based on the use of drugs aimed at specific changes present in tumor cells, thereby blocking cell proliferation.
  • Biological therapy: These are drugs that help the immune system recognize leukemia cells and control the disease.
  • Radiation therapy: the introduction of ionizing radiation to stop the proliferation of diseased cells. The whole organism can be irradiated, but more often the irradiation is directed to a specific target, for example, to the bone marrow.
  • Stem cell transplantation: This is a procedure to replace a diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow cells. Before transplantation, high doses of chemotherapy and / or radiation therapy are administered to destroy the diseased bone marrow, then donor stem cells are introduced intravenously, which again populate the bone marrow.

Patients with acute leukemia are treated in oncohematological hospitals. In the chambers, an enhanced sanitary and disinfection regime is being organized. Patients with acute leukemia need hygienic treatment of the oral cavity, the prevention of pressure sores, and the toilet of the genitals after physiological administration; organization of high-calorie and fortified nutrition.

Direct treatment of acute leukemia is carried out sequentially; The main stages of therapy include the achievement (induction) of remission, its consolidation (consolidation) and maintenance, prevention of complications. For this, standardized chemotherapy regimens have been developed and are being used, which are selected by a hematologist taking into account the morphological and cytochemical forms of acute leukemia.

In a favorable situation, remission is usually achieved within 4-6 weeks of enhanced therapy. Then, as part of the consolidation of remission, another 2-3 courses of chemotherapy are carried out. Supportive anti-relapse therapy is carried out for at least 3 years. Along with chemotherapy for acute leukemia, accompanying treatment is necessary to prevent agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, DIC, infectious complications, neuroleukemia (antibiotic therapy, transfusion of red blood cells, platelet mass and fresh frozen plasma, endolumbar administration of cytostatics). With leukemic infiltration of the pharynx, mediastinum, testicles and other organs, x-ray therapy of the lesions is performed.

In case of successful treatment, destruction of the clone of leukemic cells, normalization of hematopoiesis is achieved, which contributes to the induction of a long relapse-free period and recovery. To prevent relapse of acute leukemia, bone marrow transplantation can be performed after preconditioning by chemotherapy and total radiation.

According to available statistics, the use of modern cytostatic agents leads to the transition of acute leukemia to the remission phase in 60-80% of patients; 20-30% of them manage to achieve full recovery. In general, the prognosis for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is more favorable than for myeloblastic.

Treatment depends on many factors, on age, state of immunity, as well as on the results of the diagnosis.

There are several types of treatment for leukemia in adults:

  • Radiation therapy or radiotherapy. A malignant tumor is removed due to the destruction of pathogenic cells. The method has many side effects: nausea, hair loss, brittle nails.
  • Chemotherapy. It is used more often than other methods of treating the disease. Certain drugs are introduced into the body in several courses, which destroy the focus of infection. It implies the introduction of drugs into the body. It is carried out through a special needle in the area of ​​the spinal canal, or through a special catheter, also located in the part of the spinal canal.
  • Bone marrow transplantation. A very serious operation, during which the removed part of the affected bone marrow is replaced by healthy donor cells.

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Folk remedies for blood disease

It has long been used to treat diseases of medicinal plants.

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So, in the treatment of anemia it is recommended to take:

  • Rosehip tincture. It is rich in vitamin C, improves metabolism and cleans the circulatory system.
  • A good remedy for anemia is carrots, grated, it must be mixed with sour cream and eat when you want.
  • It is also recommended to use as much garlic as possible or tincture prepared in this way: peel 300 grams of garlic, add alcohol, leave in a dark place 21 day. Take 20 drops before meals, stirring in a glass of milk.
  • To reduce hemorrhage in hemophilia, you can take an underground 100 gram peanut before eating.
  • For the treatment of sepsis, blood purification agents are used. For this, cranberry juice has proven itself well. To achieve the desired effect, you need to take it every day for half a glass three times a day in the first week, two times in the second, and once in the third.

The use of folk remedies does not exclude medical treatment. Only in combination, various methods of therapy can give a positive result. Be careful of your health, do not self-medicate, only in this case, you can guarantee a high chance of recovery.

Types of Leukemia

Different forms of leukemia are classified according to the speed at which the disease appears and depending on the type of cell origin.

In acute leukemia, there is an accumulation in the blood, in the bone marrow, and sometimes also in the spleen and in the lymph nodes of immature cells, which are called leukemic “blasts”. These cells do not work properly, have a very long average life and excellent ability to reproduce, so the disease occurs and progresses rapidly. Acute leukemia requires quick and aggressive therapy.

Chronic leukemia is characterized by accumulation in the blood, bone marrow, spleen and often in the lymph nodes of white blood cells that mature almost normally, which grow endlessly and tend to accumulate over time. For a certain period of time, they may work normally. Often, at the initial stage, chronic leukemias do not give symptoms and do not show signs for a long period before diagnosis.

This type of leukemia includes lymphocytes, which are part of our immune system. Lymphocytes are found in circulating blood and lymph tissue.

Myelogenous leukemia – This type of leukemia involves a cell of myeloid origin, which leads to red blood cells that turn white blood cells and platelets.

The main subtypes of leukemia are:

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (LLA) is the most common acute leukemia in children, although it can occur in adults.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a very common form of leukemia and the most common form in adults, although it can also affect children.
  • Chronic lymphatic leukemia (LLC) is the most common form of chronic leukemia in adults and can be painless and asymptomatic for a long time without treatment.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This type of leukemia affects mainly adults. A person with this form of leukemia may have several symptoms or be asymptomatic for months or years before moving on to a phase of the disease in which cells begin to grow much faster. There are other rarer types of leukemia.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.