Coagulopathy – a set of negative processes, characterized by violations of blood coagulation mechanisms. Pathology can be either acquired (renal failure) or congenital (hemophilia).
The disease is manifested by dangerous prolonged bleeding, the development of iron deficiency anemia, the formation of extensive hematomas on the skin.
Diagnosis of coagulopathy consists in laboratory and instrumental studies. After studying the results, patients undergo complex treatment aimed at eliminating the causes of the pathology, as well as its symptoms. In the treatment of the disease, antibiotics, hormones, vitamins and trace elements are used.
The main types of coagulopathy, regardless of their affiliation with acquired or congenital pathologies, are rapidly developing in the human body. Trigger triggers are provocative factors:
- autoimmune diseases occurring against the background of increased blood clots;
- systemic pathologies characterized by thinning of the walls of small vessels;
- malignant and benign tumors;
- long-term therapy with anticoagulants;
- fatty liver, hepatitis, cirrhosis;
- lack of fat-soluble vitamin K in the body;
- intoxication with poisons of plant and animal origin, caustic alkalis and acids, heavy metals;
- violation of the hormonal background;
- sensitization reactions;
- violation of the absorption of biologically active substances in the small and large intestines.
Hereditary coagulopathies are caused by various types of thrombocytopenia. Pathologies are exacerbated by a decrease in the body’s resistance to viral and bacterial infections.
Especially sharply there is a violation of homeostasis in acute renal failure. The ability of paired organs to filter blood decreases, a significant concentration of toxins and toxins accumulates in it.
This condition is often diagnosed during pregnancy, when the growing uterus presses on the kidneys and urethra. Therefore, during the period of bearing a child, gynecologists and urologists recommend bed rest for some patients with a predisposition to coagulopathy.
In this way, normal blood circulation in the urinary system of a woman can be restored. Coagulopathy in pregnant women is often treated in a hospital under the supervision of medical personnel.
The classification of coagulopathies does not depend on the symptoms manifested, however, there are signs of pathology characteristic of a particular type. Only an experienced doctor can accurately diagnose the belonging of an anomaly in homeostasis, but you should immediately contact a medical institution if such symptoms appear:
- pallor of the skin, cyanosis of the nasolabial folds and hands;
- swelling of the joints due to hemorrhage in the cavity;
- blood does not clot for a very long time even after using hydrogen peroxide, alcoholic solutions of iodine or brilliant green;
- the occurrence of extensive hematomas against minor bruises;
- increased bleeding of the skin and mucous membranes.
With prolonged bleeding, a significant loss of B vitamins and iron occurs. A person’s teeth are crumbling, nails are flaking, hair loss is observed. Coagulopathy in children is especially dangerous: during the formation of joints, muscles, bones and tendons, the absence of iron and vitamins leads to negative consequences.
At the first stage of the diagnosis, the doctor listens to the patient’s complaints and assesses his state of health. A history of diseases will help to suspect the presence of coagulopathy. But the most informative studies of blood and urine.
The detection of a large amount of calcium in urine often becomes a signal for the presence of malignant tumors that provoke bleeding. If urine contains a lot of proteins, then an ultrasound examination of the kidneys is performed to assess their functional activity.
Since coagulopathy can be a symptom or complication of a more serious disease, there is a need for further diagnosis. Patients are required to undergo such examination procedures:
- CT scan;
- X-ray examination;
- Magnetic resonance imaging;
- ultrasound procedure.
With the help of a blood test, a violation of homeostasis and the stage of development of coagulopathy are determined. Laboratory signs of poor blood coagulation are a low concentration of hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelets in a biological sample.
It also indicates low immunity and developing iron deficiency anemia. Patients undergo tests (coagulograms) to determine the ability of platelets to aggregate.
Coagulopathy syndrome is understood to mean a group of pathological conditions in which various coagulation disorders develop. Symptoms of coagulopathy are always caused by serious problems in the coagulation system, and also reflect the dysfunction of the anticoagulation mechanism, which leads to spontaneous coagulopathic bleeding. Often the disease is congenital, hereditary, therefore, it can already be observed in newborns.
If this type is due to a lack of necessary blood-clotting components, then the second type of coagulopathy – acquired (secondary) is formed during a person’s life under the influence of a number of reasons and factors. Nevertheless, even in this case, the patient’s body contains certain genetic disorders, in other words, a tendency to develop the disease. The first signs of coagulopathy in the vast majority of cases occur in young children, or in women during pregnancy.
In a healthy person, during normal work of the coagulation system, the blood coagulation process proceeds in three periods (stages):
- When, for one reason or another, damage to any blood vessel occurred, that is, a tear or rupture of the vascular wall, a primary platelet clot forms.
- In about the next 15 minutes, fibrin, which is a product of blood coagulation, begins to secrete in the area of the vessel, so the blood clot becomes stronger.
- The vessel is “sealed”, its integrity is returned, so the primary thrombus becomes unnecessary. The anticoagulation mechanisms that trigger the thrombus lysis process are activated, which release the lumen of the vessel from a blood clot.
If a person is diagnosed with coagulopathy, then violations can occur at any stage of the described process. As a rule, the actual signs of coagulopathy appear as a result of serious bleeding or massive blood loss, when the patient already has the prerequisites for a bleeding disorder.
Congenital pathologies are caused by dysfunction of certain genes that are responsible for the production of protein coagulation factors. We are talking about pathologies such as von Willebrand disease and hemophilia. There are also rare diseases of the blood coagulation system – Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Scott syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, etc.
Other possible external and internal causes that can provoke the development of coagulopathy throughout life:
- antiphospholipid syndrome;
- hemorrhagic vasculitis;
- excessive, uncontrolled intake of anticoagulants – Warfarin, Heparin;
- cirrhosis and liver necrosis;
- vitamin K deficiency;
- poisoning of the body with hemotoxic poisons, for example, poisons of various types of vipers;
- transferred viral hemorrhagic fevers, including dengue fever, dengue shock syndrome;
- decrease in platelet life under the influence of hormonal disruptions;
- lack of vitamin B12;
- severe kidney disease;
- allergic reactions;
- severe enteropathy;
- disaggregated thrombocytopenia, compensation of which is not carried out, as well as other types of thrombocytopenia (against the background of increased platelet sequestration in the spleen, autoimmune or immunodeficiency platelet destruction, etc.).
In acute blood loss, a type of disease such as hemodilutionary coagulopathy develops. It can be triggered by the loss of protein or blood cells, mainly platelets.
As already mentioned, the main types of coagulopathies are congenital and acquired diseases of this group. Below is their description and symptoms.
Congenital forms of pathology. Almost all of them are associated with insufficient or complete absence of one of the coagulation factors. These pathologies are often combined under the term “hemophilia”, with their existence there is a deficiency of thromboplastin. So, with hemophilia A, antihemophilic globulin is not enough, with hemophilia B – the Christmas factor is unbalanced, with hemophilia C – there is a lack of the thromboplastin precursor, or factor 9.
Symptoms of hereditary coagulopathies are most often associated with developing bleeding, which the patient appears even with the smallest cut or minor bruise. Externally, the bleeding sites look like hematomas that appear during the sweating of blood in the tissue. A distinctive feature of hereditary hemophilia, which distinguishes them from various thrombocytopenia, is the complete absence of petechiae (point surface hemorrhages) on the skin.
Also, patients with hemophilia and other hereditary coagulopathic syndromes may experience spontaneous hemorrhages in the knee and other joints with the development of hemarthrosis. Hematuria is possible – the appearance of blood in the urine, increased bleeding of the gums and other mucous membranes, frequent nosebleeds.
Acquired coagulopathy. There are many similar conditions, as well as the reasons for their development. They are not caused by heredity, do not depend on age, gender. Often, various pathogenic factors lead to a shortage of prothrombin produced in the body, which is produced in the intestine with the participation of vitamin K, bile, and gastric juice.
- skin and submucosal hemorrhages of various intensities;
- hemorrhagic discharge from the intestines and bladder;
- an increase in the symptoms of anemia, which seriously affects the general health of the patient;
- clinical manifestations of ischemic changes in almost all internal organs;
- in the most severe cases, a picture of severe hemorrhagic shock appears.
Why coagulopathy develops
Before considering the symptoms and treatment of this pathology, it is necessary to determine the causes of its development. First of all, we will understand how the process of blood coagulation proceeds normally. In the absence of serious violations, it goes through three stages:
- With traumatic damage to the vascular wall of small blood vessels, a primary platelet clot forms during the first five minutes.
- Over the next 15 minutes, with the help of fibrin, which is formed as a result of blood coagulation, the primary thrombus strengthens.
- The third stage is due to the need to free the lumen of the vessel from an unnecessary blood clot, which leads to its resorption.
The pathogenesis of coagulopathy is associated with any disorders that occur during one of the above stages.
Pathogenesis of coagulopathy
Coagulopathy – what is it, why do nosebleeds become more frequent in a completely healthy person? The pathogenesis of the disease is based on a violation of the coagulation process under the influence of external or internal provoking factors.
The normal circulation of platelets, red blood cells, and hemoglobin is determined by special mechanisms of homeostasis to maintain dynamic balance. In order for the blood to coagulate in the event of a life-threatening situation, the body starts the coagulation process.
If the artery, vein or capillary is damaged, hemorrhage occurs in the areas of soft tissue located near the vessel.
To restore the integrity of the hollow organ, platelets begin to attract each other, forming a large conglomerate. Such a blood clot quickly seals a deformed vessel, restoring blood circulation.
The causes of coagulopathy are various, but all of them provoke a failure of the blood coagulation mechanism at one of the following stages:
- After damage to the vessel, a blood clot is formed in a few minutes, which is called primary.
- Soon there is an enlargement of blood clots. The process involves specific plasma proteins – fibrinogen. The result of aggregation is a secondary thrombus.
- After the integrity of the capillaries is restored, the thrombus dissolves, and its metabolic products leave the bloodstream.
When coagulopathic factors provoke coagulopathy, complete blood coagulation does not occur. Therefore, it is extremely important when diagnosing to establish at what stage the formation of a blood clot and its utilization occur.
First of all, it is necessary to draw your attention to the fact that blood coagulation occurs through the interaction of three functional and structural components, namely: platelets, endothelium of the blood vessel wall, enzyme systems – fibrinolytic, coagulation, kallikrein-kinin and complement systems.
– Primary – with the participation of the vascular wall and platelets. It lasts up to 5 minutes and ends with a platelet clot.
– Secondary, realized due to the action of plasma coagulation factors and platelet factor. It lasts 5-10 minutes and ends with the formation of fibrin, which holds the blood clot together.
– The last stage is fibrinolytic activity that dissolves a blood clot.
Any violation at any of these stages leads to coagulopathy. An expanded volume of surgical interventions, especially abdominal ones, is often associated with an increased risk of developing some form of coagulopathy.
Hereditary coagulopathies and acquired coagulopathies are distinguished.
Hereditary occur due to genetically determined reduction or distortion of the components of hemostasis. The most common forms are hemophilia A, B, C, afibrinogenemia.
Acquired coagulopathies are formed due to infectious diseases, liver diseases, severe enteropathies, and malignant tumors. Secondary coagulopathy is due to complex disorders in the blood coagulation system.
Hemodilutionary coagulopathies develop in acute significant massive blood loss due to a sharp drop in protein and blood cells.
Children – hemophiliacs
This disease can be of two main types:
- Congenital pathology, it is due to a decrease in the quantitative or qualitative composition of the components of homeostasis. This is the name of the system responsible for the coagulation process. There are several forms of this pathology. Each of them is caused by the lack of a single component, which reflects their classification. The most common hemophilia, marked by the letters of the Latin alphabet: A, B and C. There are other forms of this pathology, but they are rarely recorded. An example is afibrinogenemia, which is characteristic of both men and women.
- Acquired pathological processes are a complication of any disease. It can be tumor processes, some infectious diseases or liver pathologies. The disease can also cause medication uncontrolled by the doctor. Also, acquired coagulopathy can be a consequence of massive blood loss. The reason in this case is the lack of protein fractions and blood elements of the patient.
Consider the most common forms of this disease.
We immediately determine that almost all forms of congenital coagulopathy are due to the absence or deficiency of only one factor. All of them have a common name – hemophilia. These pathological processes are hereditary, most often associated with the sex of a sick person. All of them are due to a lack of thromboplastin. Depending on what factor of this process suffers, the following types are distinguished:
- hemophilia A is caused by a lack of antihemophilic globulin;
- group B – imbalance of the Christmas factor;
- group C develops with a lack of a thromboplastin precursor, which is called “factor No. 9”.
The clinical picture of these pathologies does not have significant differences. Hemophilia A and B are affected only by men, and the disease is transmitted by women, that is, it is associated with the X chromosome. Coagulopathy of the C-group with X-chromosomal inheritance is not associated, therefore, both men and women can get this disease.
Symptoms of the disease are quite characteristic. These are prolonged bleeding that occurs even with minor injury or contusion. They have the form of edema, resulting from sweating blood into the surrounding tissue, petechiae in this case are not formed. This is a characteristic feature in differential diagnosis.
Quite often, coagulopathy of consumption can occur. It is associated with the accumulation of fibrin in the bloodstream, which causes a decrease in fibrinogen. All this leads to areas of platelet accumulation with the development of the so-called symptom of thrombocytopenia. Which ultimately ends with the phenomena of increased bleeding of tissues. The cause may be septic conditions, massive injuries or pathological delivery.
The cause of the development of coagulopathy may also be the intake of certain medications. Most often, this condition develops when taking some direct (for example, “Heparin”) or indirect (“Sincumar”, “Pelentan”) anticoagulants. It should be noted that bleeding can occur not only against the background of an overdose, but also with the usual therapeutic doses of these drugs. This should be remembered during pregnancy. Clinically, this condition manifests itself in the form of increasing bleeding.
As a rule, this pathology in women during the period of gestation is associated with a violation of the homeostasis system. It most often occurs against the background of the following pathological processes:
- chronic thrombophlebitis or varicose veins that develop both during pregnancy and before it begins;
- pathological conditions of metabolic processes, for example phospholipids;
- pathology of the circulatory system and blood formation.
Experts note a great risk of developing symptoms of coagulopathy in pregnant women, who have a history of information about the transfer of massive blood loss in the past with complications such as thromboembolism. Also at risk are diabetics. The patient’s data throughout the period of bearing a child should be under strict medical supervision of both a gynecologist and a surgeon.
Therapy for blood clotting disorders is complex. If this pathology is not congenital, but has formed as a complication of another pathological process, then the treatment of the underlying disease should not stop.
The complex of therapeutic prescriptions includes vitamin therapy with a predominance of vitamins of groups C, P and K. Steroid preparations are also mandatory on the prescription list.
In childhood, the detection of poor coagulability and a longer bleeding time should be the reason for immediate medical attention, so as not to lead to massive blood loss and death of the child. Treatment is based on the same principles as in adults. Particular attention is required to pregnant women with coagulopathy, which for the first time can manifest itself during gestation, due to various physiological changes in the composition and amount of blood.
The consequences of bleeding for the fetus and the expectant mother can be fatal, so the treatment of coagulopathy should be started at an early stage. Most often, a woman is injected with corticosteroid hormones in late pregnancy, and they also administer special immunoglobulins 3-4 times per gestation. Another injection of the drug is placed immediately before childbirth.
Sometimes this condition can form already during the life of a sick person. In this case, the components necessary for blood coagulation are usually present in sufficient quantities, but their quality is not normal. However, in both cases, this pathology is due to certain genetic disorders. Most often, the first symptoms of coagulopathy appear in early childhood or in women during gestation.
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The main symptoms of coagulopathy are pallor of the skin, hemorrhagic syndrome, with an outflow of blood into adjacent tissues or out of the walls of the vessels.
In the process of blood coagulation, three main stages are distinguished:
- primary – it lasts only five minutes, but during this time there is a process of formation of a platelet clot;
- secondary: it takes fifteen minutes of time for which fibrin forms, fastening the thrombus;
- third stage: at this time the thrombus dissolves.
If one of them causes a malfunction, this leads to the development of a particular type of coagulopathy.
At this time, hereditary and chronic diseases can worsen. They can occur even in case of predisposition. So, if under the influence of factors the blood composition changes in the direction of decreasing or increasing any indicators, a pregnant woman may develop coagulopathy.
Causes of the disease in women “in position”:
- exacerbation of varicose veins, chronic thrombophlebitis and other vascular diseases;
- metabolic disease;
- thromboembolism as a result of injuries, operations with significant blood loss;
- excessive production of various hormones;
- heredity (lack of blood thromboplastin): the disease can be transmitted both from generation to generation, and through generations;
- excess in the body of the enzyme fibrin;
- infectious diseases;
- improper diet;
- failure of the immune system;
- kidney and liver diseases;
- bleeding gums;
- taking any drugs that lower platelet count.
The disease in pregnant women manifests itself in the form of the following symptoms:
- bleeding of internal organs;
- nosebleeds as a result of changes in blood pressure;
- hemorrhages of a point character, “cobwebs” on the stomach and legs;
- multiple manifestations of hemorrhoidal nodes;
- bleeding of the larynx mucosa;
- numerous bruises and bruises, even with minor effects on the mother’s body.
Coagulopathy in children is called hemophilia. The causes of this disease can be:
- heredity (in the case of a congenital disease): as a result of a lack of blood thromboplastin, the disease is more often transmitted to boys than girls;
- acquired coagulopathy also has a number of reasons: insufficient fibrin enzyme;
- disturbances in the formation of platelet clots;
- excessive accumulation of fibrin, which leads to thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy;
- large blood loss in the child;
- infectious diseases;
- failure of the liver and digestive system;
- an overdose of anticancer drugs;
- oncology of blood and internal organs;
- infections leading to a malfunction of the cardiovascular system.
- lean physique;
- pallor of the skin;
- during teething constant bleeding is observed;
- frequent bleeding of the larynx, for this reason the child can not breathe normally;
- large hematomas and bruises that do not absorb for a long time and exciting nerve endings, this can lead to further gangrene or paralysis of the baby;
- joint hemorrhages, accompanied by acute pain;
- nosebleeds that do not stop for a long time;
- bleeding of internal organs, accompanied by acute pain at the site of outpouring;
- even small scratches can lead to prolonged bleeding (up to several hours).
Coagulopathy: varieties, causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease
Despite the multiple causes of coagulopathy, pathology is classified only by its mode of occurrence. Specialists subdivide the disease into the following types:
Congenital. In this case, a failure occurs already at the stage of homeostasis. The concentration of biologically active substances in the bloodstream is reduced, which will certainly affect its qualitative composition. The equilibrium of the system responsible for thrombosis is disturbed. Congenital coagulopathies, in turn, are div >
Congenital pathologies include all forms of hemophilia. In the absence of medical intervention, a person may die from blood loss and cardiac arrest.
All hemophilia are types of primary coagulopathies caused by gene mutations. Hemorrhages can be detected in muscles, adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract and pulmonary parenchyma.
Congenital coagulopathies imply a certain lifestyle – the constant use of pharmacological drugs and a special diet. Therapy of acquired pathologies is complex and is aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease.
When a serious injury became the provoking factor, the patient is subject to urgent hospitalization. In the intensive care unit, replenishment of the lost blood with solutions for parenteral administration is carried out. If necessary, a blood transfusion is carried out.
To maintain coagulation at the proper level, the following drugs are used for treatment:
- glucocorticosteroids – Dexamethasone, Prednisolone;
- antibiotics – Amoxiclav, Clarithromycin, Amoxicillin;
- chemotherapeutic drugs;
- antispasmodics – Drotaverin, Spazgan;
- complexes of vitamins and minerals;
- iron preparations – Fenyuls, Sorbifer.
Plasma substitutes and / or platelet mass help restore normal blood coagulation. To stop external bleeding, a collagen homeostatic sponge or powder is used. In the absence of the effect of the treatment of coagulopathy with pharmacological agents, the surgeons remove the spleen.
Timely treatment of diseases, annual medical examination and the right way of life – these are the most effective prevention of acquired coagulopathy. If a predisposition to bleeding is diagnosed, you should make changes to your diet. Nutritionists advise to completely exclude spicy, salty, fried foods from the menu, limit the use of alcoholic beverages.
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- increasing bleeding;
- areas of hemorrhage on the abdomen, sides, legs;
- uterine bleeding, prolonged menstruation;
- pallor, general weakness;
- development of anemia.
Complications of coagulopathies, the treatment and correction of which were not started on time, can be hemophilic arthropathy, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhoids, DIC and hemorrhagic shock, death from massive blood loss.
Coagulopathy is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- women have plentiful long periods;
- frequent nosebleeds;
- easily appearing hematomas on the body (bruises);
- increased bleeding.
Blood coagulation disorders can lead to the following complications:
- mental and neurological disorders;
- chronic anemia, which is caused by a low level of red blood cells and hemoglobin;
- as a result of intraocular bleeding, loss of vision;
- joint damage;
- cerebral hemorrhages (hemorrhagic stroke), which are fatal.
Diagnosis and treatment
For this, a whole complex of laboratory studies is carried out. As a rule, it includes the following steps:
- The total platelet count in the blood is determined. For this pathology, it should be low.
- The bleeding time is controlled, in our case it significantly exceeds the threshold indicators.
- Analysis for the content of fibrinogen, which in this case will be reduced.
- If possible, the main blood factors are determined.
- When the diagnosis is confirmed, therapy is adjusted.
After the initial conclusion about the presence of coagulopathy, the doctor conducts a number of diagnostic measures to find its cause and variety. If a person’s condition is serious, then in the hospital a medical treatment is carried out to stabilize his condition. You can clarify the diagnosis with a series of studies:
- Complete blood count, the study of the number and function of platelets.
- Blood coagulation tests and bleeding time.
- Biochemical analyzes, in particular, determination of fibrinogen content.
- Analyzes on the main factors of blood coagulation.
- Genetic testing (if necessary).
After making a more accurate diagnosis, the treatment program is adjusted to make treatment more effective.
Further, using a special analysis, the duration of bleeding is determined. Unlike the norm, the value will be significantly increased.
The next stage is the study of blood and its composition on the ability of platelets to aggregate, the value of coagulation factors, and the analysis of a coagulogram.
Treatment should be extremely complex. The effectiveness of treatment will largely depend on following the instructions of the attending physician.
The patient needs a transfusion of canned blood and plasma (intravenously), serum can be administered intramuscularly. During these procedures, the doctor must constantly monitor the levels of hemoglobin, prothrombin, hematocrit.
During treatment, the intake of vitamins is important, which will contribute to the speedy recovery and maintenance of the body during the treatment. With this disease, the intake of vitamins of the group K, C, P, calcium, corticosteroids is prescribed (the dosage and characteristics of the reception depend on the age of the patient).
If the disease is not hereditary, in parallel with the treatment of coagulopathy, it is necessary to carry out therapy and prevention of the development of the underlying disease, which has become the cause of the more complex and dangerous.
Treatment of any disease in pregnant women should be not only gentle, but also effective, since the health of both mothers and the unborn baby depends on this, therefore, women in the “position” are assigned:
- Medications Prednisolone and Dexamethasone. In later stages, the baby’s lungs mature faster when taking these drugs.
- Immunoglobulin injections. During pregnancy, it is administered 3-4 times and once before and after childbirth.
- If a woman’s life is at risk, platelet transfusion is performed.
- If during the first trimester it was not possible to raise the platelet level, surgery is performed to remove the spleen (no later than the second trimester). Only in this way can a pathological effect on the fetus be avoided.
- Folk methods. Herbal treatment is a common method and gives a good effect in combination with the main treatment. Herbs are safe for the baby and mother, but their reception must be consulted with your doctor. So, it is useful to take a product based on milk and nettle juice at the rate of 1: 1. You need to prepare 100 milliliters of the product and divide it into three meals throughout the day 30 minutes before eating.
In the event of an injury with blood loss, it is necessary to immediately introduce hormonal drugs that will prevent severe loss of blood. After taking the drugs, immediately go to the medical institution, where all necessary measures will be taken.
There is no special treatment for this disease in children, the therapy is symptomatic, therefore the main task of doctors and parents is to monitor the presence of internal bleeding, which are treated in a hospital. With heavy blood loss, transfusions of blood and its components are performed to replenish the balance.
In order for a person’s life with coagulopathy to be as complete and high-quality as possible, treatment is necessary at the earliest stages. The earlier the patient seeks help, the higher his percentage of recovery. In the case of a running condition, a fatal outcome is possible.
Coagulopathy therapy should be comprehensive. In the presence of an acquired pathology, it is necessary to influence its cause, that is, to treat the underlying disease, without eliminating which it is unlikely to be able to get rid of disorders in the blood coagulation system. With massive bleeding, a person is immediately placed in the intensive care unit with the involvement of resuscitators and transfusiologists, as well as hematologists.
- Acceptance or injection of glucocorticosteroids (Dexamethasone, Prednisolone).
- The use of antibiotics in the presence of an infectious process.
- Chemotherapy or surgery for the development of coagulopathy on the background of a tumor process.
- The use of antispasmodics for the expansion of blood vessels and vasopressors for normalizing low blood pressure.
- Vitamin therapy with the inclusion of vitamins K, P, C.
- Infusion of plasma substitutes, freshly frozen plasma to normalize blood coagulation and stop bleeding.
- Platelet transfusion with massive bleeding.
- Plasmapheresis to remove circulating immune complexes from the blood that interfere with normal blood coagulation.
- Treatment of wounds and external bleeding sites with hemostatic powder, collagen hemostatic sponge.
- Removal of the spleen (used only in the absence of the effect of conservative therapy).
In case of blood clotting disorders, it is imperative to follow a diet that will increase the number of platelets in the blood. The food program includes products that increase coagulation – buckwheat, red cabbage, beets, turnips, radishes, red peppers, all purple berries, bananas, mangoes, etc. It is necessary to refuse for a while from food that dilutes blood – from oily fish, onions and garlic, citrus fruits, Jerusalem artichoke, red wine.
Folk remedies can also treat coagulopathy, but only in conjunction with traditional drugs and after consulting a doctor. Some mild forms of coagulopathy are completely treatable even without the help of drugs, only through diet and folk remedies, but the doctor should decide on such therapy. Folk recipes are as follows:
- Squeeze the juice from fresh nettles, combine it in a 1: 1 ratio with milk. Drink 30 ml of such a “cocktail” 50 minutes before meals three times a day. The course is 14 days.
- Collect the bark of viburnum, boil 2 tablespoons of raw material in 300 ml of water for half an hour over low heat. Cool, drink 2 tablespoons 5 times a day.
To exclude acquired coagulopathies, all diseases that can lead to DIC, blood loss, and oncological pathologies should be treated on time. Surgery to avoid blood loss should be done in the least traumatic way. Uncontrolled intake of anticoagulants, damage by poisons and toxins is not allowed. To prevent hemophilia in a child, genetic counseling of couples where there are similar problems should be carried out even before conception.
The materials presented are general information and cannot replace the advice of a doctor.