A blood test for KFK what is it, how to take it, decryption

Norm of total creatine kinase:

  • For women: no more than 146 units / l;
  • For men: no more than 172 units / liter.

Before donating blood, you need to carefully prepare for this process. Those who are interested in how to pass the analysis correctly need to consider several fairly simple requirements:

  • donate blood only on an empty stomach;
  • in the evening, on the eve of the upcoming analysis, you can not drink strong coffee, tea, consume fatty foods, alcoholic beverages (the latter is better not to drink for 2-3 days);
  • Do not smoke, at least for an hour before analysis;
  • the day before the tests are taken, it is not worth practicing any thermal procedures – going to the sauna, bath, and a person should not expose himself to serious physical exertion;
  • you need to pass laboratory tests in the morning, before any medical procedures;
  • a person who is preparing for analysis, having come to the laboratory, should calm down a bit, sit for a few minutes and catch his breath;
  • the answer to the question whether it is possible to brush your teeth before taking tests is negative: in order to accurately determine blood sugar, in the morning before the study you need to ignore this hygienic procedure, and also not drink tea and coffee;
  • do not take antibiotics, hormonal drugs, diuretics, etc. before blood sampling;
  • two weeks before the study, you need to stop taking drugs that affect lipids in the blood, in particular, statins;
  • if you need to pass the full analysis again, you need to do it at the same time, the laboratory must also be the same.

If a clinical blood test was performed, the interpretation of the indicators is carried out by a specialist. Also, the interpretation of indicators of a biochemical analysis of blood can be carried out using a special table in which the normal indicators of tests in adults and children are indicated. If any indicator differs from the norm, it is important to pay attention to this and consult a doctor who can correctly “read” all the results and give recommendations. If necessary, blood biochemistry is prescribed: an expanded profile.

A blood test is performed on almost every disease, because any changes in the composition of the blood can facilitate the diagnosis. They even conduct it if the patient does not make any complaints about his health. That is why, if you really care about yourself, contact your doctor to refer you to this study from time to time. This is especially true of those who have some problems with the heart, liver and kidneys.

Conditions causing an increase in creatine kinase levels

Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are observed in 80% of cases of hypothyroidism and in patients with severe hypokalemia due to changes in skeletal muscle caused by these diseases. In addition, creatine kinase levels may increase dramatically as a result of the effect on the muscles with alcohol.

It was found that the level of creatine kinase is disturbed after 1 – 2 days in most cases of severe alcohol intoxication, as well as in most patients suffering from delirium tremens. However, it is noted that in chronic alcoholics its level remains within the normal range, excluding cases of severe binges.

Typically, creatine kinase levels increase after intramuscular injections. Since therapeutic injections and other mechanical shocks are common in the body, these factors are more likely to explain the overall increase in creatine kinase levels. Shock or damage to muscle tissue due to surgical operations also cause an increase in its level, lasting for several days.

What can affect the level of CPK?

In order for the results to not be false positive, it is recommended to donate blood on an empty stomach. Drinking pure water without impurities is allowed. After eating, before giving blood to determine the level of CPK (what it is, described in detail above), at least 8 hours should pass, and the more, the better. If you are taking any medications, taking a test is not recommended.

Another important point that needs to be considered before blood donation is exercise. Before an immediate analysis, it is highly recommended not only to perform active physical exercises, but also to experience stressful situations and to drink alcohol, even in small doses. In addition, do not rush to donate blood to determine the level of CPK immediately after fluorography, X-ray examination (even if you took a picture of a tooth or finger), ultrasound procedures, various physiotherapy procedures or rectal examinations.

There are a number of factors that can affect the results of the study of blood CK, and lead to their distortion:

  • high physical activity;
  • taking injections of medical drugs;
  • chyle sore;
  • taking a number of medicines;
  • hemolysis.

Elevated levels of CPK, which is determined by laboratory research, may indicate changes in the body that are associated with myocardial infarction, rhabdomyliosis, muscular dystrophy, myotism, excessive physical exertion, as well as surgery of varying difficulty.

If there is a decrease in the level of this indicator, it has no diagnostic value.

Additional information about creatine kinase assay

An increase in creatine kinase levels is characterized by a wide variety of conditions that affect the brain, including bacterial meningitis, encephalitis, cerebrovascular stroke, hepatic coma, uremic coma and severe epilepsy attacks. Values ​​of increasing its level deviate from the generally accepted indicator depending on the conditions of each particular case.

Since skeletal muscle is the main source of creatine kinase for the body, in people with low muscle mass its level is lower than in average people, and vice versa. Normal values ​​also differ among representatives of different races. SC is divided into three main isoenzymes, namely: SC-BB, which is contained mainly in the lungs and brain; SK-MM, located in the skeletal muscle, and a hybrid form of SK-MV, which is mainly found in the heart muscle.

Indications and results

If the fiber fibers are damaged, CPK leaves the cells, and its content in the blood increases significantly. That is why laboratory tests for determining the level of CPK in the blood are reliable with an accuracy of about 100%. They allow you to diagnose myocardial infarction. After 2-4 hours after an attack, an analysis will show that CPK is elevated, however, this indicator quickly returns to normal.

In addition, an increase in CPK can be observed even with physical injuries of muscles, their crush and disease, as well as after drinking a significant amount of alcoholic beverages and the abuse of sleeping pills.

Decrease in this indicator is not observed at laboratory research.

Indications for analysis are:

  • early diagnosis of myocardial infarction (analysis is required in the next 2-4 hours);
  • differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction, when this attack is combined with mild or no complications of angina.

In addition, this analysis is prescribed to all patients who are on treatment for any heart disease in order to exclude the fact of a heart attack. It is knowledge of the level of CPK (that it is, described above) that will help specialists determine the state of the heart. The buildup of this substance in the blood can signal possible heart problems.

Blood CPC (what you can find out at the beginning of the article) is elevated in the following cases:

  • myocardial infarction (elevated values ​​are diagnosed in the first 2-4 hours, the maximum is reached in a day; after 3-6 days, the value decreases, but normalization does not occur);
  • muscle degeneration;
  • Reye’s syndrome (acute hepatic encephalopathy);
  • shock condition;
  • various poisoning, in particular, alcohol and sleeping pills;
  • myocardial infectious lesions.

A reduced level of blood CK (which is described above) is observed with a decrease in muscle mass, a sedentary lifestyle, and also acts as an indirect sign of the development of thyrotoxicosis (intoxication with thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland).

Reasons for lowering total creatine kinase:

  • alcoholic liver damage,
  • decrease in muscle mass
  • hyperthyro >

A decrease in creatine kinase MB is not diagnostically significant.

To date, the analysis of SC isoenzymes can be carried out in the laboratories of most hospitals. It helps diagnose damage to the heart muscle. For example, an elevated level of SC-MV helps to establish the corresponding value of the total content of creatine kinase, which is an important indicator of heart health.

The need for analysis, especially its implementation

KFK analysis – what is it and how is the procedure performed? For blood tests on this parameter using the traditional method. It consists in the following: from the forearm vein (namely, from the upper third of the forearm), the specialist produces a certain amount of blood. After that, the collected blood is sent to the laboratory, where the study is conducted.

Before taking this analysis, the patient is preferably not eat. So, the result will be more informative and accurate.

To determine the level of CK blood test carried out by photometry. It consists in molecular absorption spectral study. The techniques included in this survey are based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, which occurs in a selective manner. Absorption is carried out by molecules of the component whose level is checked in the visible, infrared and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum. Reagent CPK compounds can also be absorbed.

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For the study used a special device – KFK photocolorimeter.

A blood test for CPK is performed if the doctor, based on the patient’s complaints, has good reason to believe that there is a serious pathology:

It is very important to understand what blood shows on CPK, and which indicators are not critical, and which indicate serious pathologies. Of course, it is not always possible to talk about the jump in the level of this enzyme about diseases, but it is impossible to ignore such a deviation.

So, a doctor can prescribe a blood test for creatine phosphokinase if there is suspicion that the patient is suffering from:

  • a pre-infarction condition or a developed myocardial infarction (a study of KFK MV is prescribed);
  • dermatomyositis;
  • muscular tissue dystrophy;
  • the presence of inflammatory processes in muscle tissue;
  • polymyositis;
  • myositis of viral etiology;
  • muscle injuries;
  • violations of the work of GM;
  • pre-stroke condition or stroke;
  • rheumatic heart disease;
  • arrhythmias;
  • TBI;
  • too intense physical exertion;
  • the use of injectable drugs injected directly into the heart muscle;
  • frequent attacks of tachycardia, etc.

Also, an analysis of the content of creatinophosphokinase in the blood is performed to monitor the condition of the patient in the postoperative period (if there has been a surgical intervention on the heart, brain in brain injury or other injuries, as well as in the muscle area).


A biochemical blood test is one of the most popular research methods for patients and doctors. If you clearly know what a biochemical analysis of blood from a vein shows, you can identify a number of serious ailments in the early stages, including viral hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, and malignant neoplasms. Early detection of such pathologies makes it possible to apply the correct treatment and cure them.

The nurse draws blood for the study within a few minutes. Each patient should understand that this procedure does not cause discomfort. The answer to the question of where the blood is taken for analysis is unequivocal: from a vein.

Speaking about what is a biochemical blood test and what is included in it, it should be noted that the results obtained are actually a kind of reflection of the general condition of the body. Nevertheless, trying to independently understand whether a normal analysis or there are certain deviations from a normal value, it is important to understand what LDL is, what is CPK (CPK – creatine phosphokinase), to understand what is urea (urea), etc.

General information about the analysis of blood biochemistry – what it is and what you can find out by conducting it, you will get from this article. How much does such an analysis cost, how many days does it take to get results, you should find out directly in the laboratory where the patient intends to conduct this study.

KFK level. Norm

RI (calculated index) = CK-MB (µg / l) / total. KFK (U / L) * 100

The indicator is calculated as a percentage.

Information that relates to the reference values ​​(norms) of these indicators, and included in the analysis of indicators in different laboratories may vary. However, the difference between the norms is insignificant, and the disease is diagnosed all the same.

The rate of creatine phosphokinase depends on the gender and age of the patient, and indicators may vary slightly in pregnant women. The generally accepted optimal indicator is the level fluctuation in the range of 20-200 U / liter.

There is such a thing as creatine kinase MV. Normal values ​​of this enzyme differ from ordinary CPK, and the patient should be aware of this so as not to panic when receiving suspicious test results.

MV KFK is an enzyme that is responsible for the normal functioning of the heart. Analysis to determine its level is carried out with suspected heart attack, stroke, coronary heart disease, etc.

The rate of creatine kinase in male patients can range from 52 to 200 units / liter.

Blood creatine kinase in women normally ranges from 35 to 165 units / liter of blood. During pregnancy, these indicators may decrease slightly, so the patient expecting a baby should not worry about this.

Blood CPK values ​​in newborn babies are significantly higher than in adults. This is because muscle and cardiac activity in infants is more intense. For this reason, in a newborn baby, the CPK level can reach 652 PIECES / L.

Over time, the level of this enzyme decreases, and by day 5, indicators can drop to 295 IU / L of blood. This level of CPK in a child persists until he reaches the age of six months. After this, creatine kinase levels continue to fall slowly.

So, for children from 6 months to a year, the norm is considered an indicator of 203 units per liter of blood, and for babies from a year to 3 years, less than 228 IU / l of blood is the most optimal level of CPK.

Total serum protein, total protein fractions

Protein means a lot in the human body, as it takes part in the creation of new cells, in the transport of substances and the formation of humoral immunity.

Proteins include 20 essential amino acids, and they also contain inorganic substances, vitamins, and lipid and carbohydrate residues.

The liquid part of the blood contains about 165 proteins, moreover, their structure and role in the body are different. Proteins are divided into three different protein fractions:

Since the production of proteins occurs mainly in the liver, their level indicates its synthetic function.

If the proteinogram indicated that the body shows a decrease in total protein, this phenomenon is defined as hypoproteinemia. A similar phenomenon is noted in the following cases:

  • with protein starvation – if a person follows a certain diet, practices vegetarianism;
  • if there is an increased excretion of protein in the urine – with proteinuria, kidney disease, pregnancy;
  • if a person loses a lot of blood – with bleeding, heavy periods;
  • in case of serious burns;
  • with exudative pleurisy, exudative pericarditis, ascites;
  • with the development of malignant neoplasms;
  • if protein formation is impaired – with cirrhosis, hepatitis;
  • with a decrease in the absorption of substances – with pancreatitis, colitis, enteritis, etc .;
  • after prolonged use of glucocorticosteroids.

An increased level of protein in the body is hyperproteinemia. Distinguishes between absolute and relative hyperproteinemia.

The relative growth of proteins develops in case of loss of the liquid part of the plasma. This occurs if constant vomiting is bothered with cholera.

An absolute increase in protein is noted if there are inflammatory processes, myeloma.

Concentrations of this substance change by 10% with a change in body position, as well as during physical exertion.

Protein fractions – globulins, albumin, fibrinogen.

A standard blood bioassay does not imply a determination of fibrinogen, which displays the process of blood coagulation. Coagulogram – an analysis in which this indicator is determined.

When is the level of protein fractions elevated?

  • if fluid loss occurs during infectious diseases;
  • with burns.
  • with hyperlipoproteinemia in people with diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis;
  • with a bleeding ulcer in the stomach or intestines;
  • with nephrotic syndrome;
  • with hypothyroidism.

Gamma globulins are elevated in the blood:

  • with viral and bacterial infections;
  • with systemic diseases of the connective tissue (rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, scleroderma);
  • with allergies;
  • with burns;
  • with helminthic invasion.

When is the protein fraction reduced?

  • in newborns due to underdevelopment of liver cells;
  • with pulmonary edema;
  • during pregnancy;
  • with liver diseases;
  • with bleeding;
  • in case of accumulation of plasma in the body cavities;
  • with malignant tumors.

Nitrogen metabolism level

Creatine phosphokinase is an enzyme that accelerates the biochemical transformation of creatine and adenosine triphosphate into creatine phosphate. In the process of this transformation, energy impulses are amplified, providing full muscle contraction.

CPK contains two component molecules (B and M), which in different combinations form three isoenzymes, each of which is localized in a specific structure of the body and is responsible for its neuromuscular functionality. KFK isoenzymes:

  • MM – isoenzyme of skeletal muscle cells (myocytes);
  • VM – isoenzyme of muscle fibers of the myocardium and skeletal muscle;
  • BB is an isoenzyme of nerve tissue in the brain.

CPK-BB is found in the blood only with vascular or brain pathologies. In a healthy state of the body, an isoenzyme is unable to cross the barrier between the circulatory and central nervous systems (the blood-brain barrier). CPK VM is an indicator of contractions of the heart muscle and the main diagnostic indicator of myocardial infarction. CPK MM accounts for 98% of all creatine kinase.

Reference! The second name for creatine kinase – CPK, or creatine phosphokinase, comes from the name of the biochemical process of correlation of creatine and adenosine triphosphate – phosphorylation.

In the body is not only the construction of cells. They also decay, and nitrogen bases accumulate. Their formation occurs in the human liver, they are excreted through the kidneys. Therefore, if indicators of nitrogen metabolism are increased, then a violation of the functions of the liver or kidneys, as well as excessive breakdown of proteins, are likely. The main indicators of nitrogen metabolism are creatinine, urea. Less commonly determined is ammonia, creatine, residual nitrogen, uric acid.

Specific colored proteins are peptides that contain metal (copper, iron). These are myoglobin, hemoglobin, cytochrome, cerulloplasmin, etc. Bilirubin is the end product of the breakdown of such proteins. When the existence of an erythrocyte in the spleen ends, bilirubin reductase is produced by biliverdin reductase, which is called indirect or free.

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At the same time, in people who suffer from cirrhosis, hepatitis, there is no connection with glucuronic acid in the body, so the analysis shows a high level of bilirubin. Next, indirect bilirubin is bound to glucuronic acid in the liver cells, and it turns into bound or direct bilirubin (DBil), which is not toxic.

Then, along with bile, bilirubin is transported from the hepatic ducts to the gallbladder, then to the duodenum, where the formation of urobilinogen occurs. In turn, it is absorbed into the blood from the small intestine, into the kidneys. As a result, urine stains yellow. Another part of this substance in the colon is exposed to bacterial enzymes, turns into stercobilin stains stool.

There are three mechanisms of development in the body of jaundice:

  • Too active breakdown of hemoglobin, as well as other pigment proteins. This occurs with hemolytic anemia, snake bites, and also with pathological spleen hyperfunction. In this state, the production of bilirubin is very active, so the liver does not have time to process such quantities of bilirubin.
  • Liver diseases – cirrhosis, tumors, hepatitis. Pigment formation occurs in normal volumes, but the liver cells that are affected by the disease are not capable of a normal amount of work.
  • Violations of the outflow of bile. This occurs in people with cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, etc. As a result of compression of the biliary tract, the flow of bile into the intestines stops and it accumulates in the liver. As a result, bilirubin enters the bloodstream.

For the body, all these conditions are very dangerous, they must be urgently treated.

Total bilirubin in women and men, as well as its fractions, are examined in the following cases:

  • toxic and viral hepatitis;
  • tumors and cirrhosis of the liver;
  • development of jaundice.

Lipids are very important for the biological activity of cells. They are involved in the construction of the cell wall, in the production of a number of hormones and bile, vitamin D. Fatty acids are an energy source for tissues and organs.

Fats in the body are divided into three categories:

    triglycer >

Lipids in the blood are determined in the form of such compounds:

  • chylomicrons (in their composition mainly triglycerides);
  • HDL (HDL, high density lipoproteins, “good” cholesterol);
  • LDL (VLP, low density lipoproteins, “bad” cholesterol);
  • VLDL (very low density lipoproteins).

The designation of cholesterol is present in the general and biochemical analysis of blood. When the analysis for cholesterol is carried out, the decryption includes all indicators, however, the indicators of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL are most important.

Donating blood for biochemistry, it should be remembered that if the patient had violated the rules for preparing for analysis, if he ate fatty foods, the indications may be incorrect. Therefore, it makes sense to check cholesterol again. In this case, you need to consider how to properly pass a blood test for cholesterol. To reduce performance, the doctor will prescribe an appropriate treatment regimen.

Total cholesterol is reduced if:

  • cirrhosis;
  • malignant liver formations;
  • rheumatoid arthritis ;
  • starvation;
  • hyperfunction of the thyroid and parathyroid glands;
  • COPD
  • malabsorption of substances.

Triglycerides are increased if:

  • alcoholic cirrhosis;
  • viral hepatitis;
  • alcoholism;
  • biliary cirrhosis;
  • cholelithiasis;
  • pancreatitis, acute and chronic;
  • chronic renal failure;
  • hypertension;
  • IHD, myocardial infarction;
  • diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism;
  • cerebral vascular thrombosis;
  • pregnancy;
  • gout;
  • Down syndrome;
  • acute intermittent porphyria.

Triglycerides are reduced if:

  • hyperfunction of the glands, thyroid and parathyroid;
  • COPD;
  • malabsorption of substances;
  • malnutrition.
  • at 5,2-6,5 mmol / l there is a slight degree of increase in cholesterol, but there is already a risk of developing atherosclerosis;
  • at 6,5-8,0 mmol / L, a moderate increase in cholesterol is fixed, which can be adjusted using a diet;
  • 8,0 mmol / L or more – high rates for which treatment is necessary, its scheme, in order to lower cholesterol, is determined by the doctor.

Five degrees of dyslipoproteinemia are determined depending on how much lipid metabolism changes. This condition is a harbinger of the development of serious diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc.).


Glucose is considered the main indicator of carbohydrate metabolism. It is the main energy product that enters the cell, since the vital activity of the cell depends on oxygen and glucose. After a person has taken food, glucose enters the liver, and there it is utilized in the form of glycogen.

Blood enzymes

The content of creatine phosphokinase in the blood depends on several factors:

  • The age category of the subject. Due to the intensive growth of muscle mass and overall development, children’s normative values ​​of CPK are higher than in adults.
  • Muscle mass (not to be confused with the total weight of the patient).
  • The presence of chronic pathologies or temporary damage to the muscle structure.
  • Gender affiliation. In men, rates are higher. This difference is due to the weaker physical potential of the female body from nature. Gradation of results by gender begins at the age of six.

In women and men of reproductive age, a healthy percentage of isoenzymes is: BB: BM: MM = 0: 6: 94. In the case when the amount of BM isoenzyme is ⩾6% of the total creatine kinase index, the patient requires a detailed examination. The low level of CPK in the elderly is not a violation, because muscle activity decreases with age (often muscle mass). Anxiety should be caused by high creatine kinase values.

Indices of the enzyme for preschool children

Infants up to 5 days old 5 days to six months From six months to a year Until 3 years Before 6 years
652 u / l 295 u / l 203 u / l 228 u / l 149 u / l

Reference values ​​for a child from 6 to 12 years old

Boys Girls
247 u / l 154 u / l

At puberty (from 12 to 17 years), in young men there is an increase in creatine kinase indices to 270 units / l, in girls – a decrease to 123 units / l. The norm of CPD for adult men is 190 units / l, for women – 167 units / l. Reduced concentration of the enzyme is fixed in women in the perinatal period, and may also indicate a malfunction of the thyroid gland or be a consequence of a hypodynamic lifestyle.

The increased content of CPK is a clinical sign of the destruction of the membranes of neuromuscular cells of one organ or another. Deciphering the results and making a diagnosis in case of deviations is the responsibility of the doctor who referred the patient to blood biochemistry.

Important! Do not engage in self-diagnosis. To determine the cause of violations, you must seek medical help.

Each biochemical laboratory also determines enzymes, special proteins that accelerate chemical reactions in the body.

The main blood enzymes:

  • aspartate aminotransferase (AST, AST);
  • alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ALT);
  • gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, LDL);
  • alkaline phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase);
  • creatine kinase (QC);
  • alpha amylase.

The listed substances are contained inside different organs, in their blood there are very few. Enzymes in the blood are measured in units / liter (international units).

Enzymes responsible for the transfer of aspartate and alanine in chemical reactions. A large amount of ALT and AST is found in the tissues of the heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. If there is an increase in AST and ALT in the blood, this indicates that the cells of the organs are destroyed. Accordingly, the higher the level of these enzymes is a part of human blood, the more cells died, and, therefore, destruction of any organ occurs. How to reduce ALT and AST depends on the diagnosis and prescription of the doctor.

Three degrees of increase in enzymes are determined:

  • 1,5-5 times – light;
  • 6-10 times – average;
  • 10 times or more – high.

What diseases lead to an increase in AST and ALT?

  • myocardial infarction (more ALT is noted);
  • acute viral hepatitis (more AST noted);
  • malignant tumors and metastases in the liver;
  • toxic damage to liver cells;
  • crash syndrome.

This enzyme determines the removal of phosphoric acid from chemical compounds, as well as the delivery of phosphorus inside the cells. The bone and liver forms of alkaline phosphatase are determined.

The level of the enzyme rises with such diseases:

  • myeloma;
  • osteogenic sarcoma;
  • lymphogranulomatosis;
  • hepatitis;
  • bone metastasis;
  • drug and toxic liver damage;
  • fracture healing process;
  • osteomalacia, osteoporosis;
  • cytomegalovirus infection.

It should be noted, discussing GGT, that this substance is involved in the metabolism of fats, carries triglycerides and cholesterol. The largest amount of this enzyme is found in the kidneys, prostate, liver, pancreas.

If GGT is elevated, the causes are most often associated with liver disease. The enzyme gammaglutamintransferase (GGT) is also elevated in diabetes mellitus. The enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase is also increased in infectious mononucleosis, alcohol intoxication, and in patients with heart failure. More information about GGT – what is it, will tell a specialist who decrypts the results of the analysis. If GGTP is elevated, the causes of this phenomenon can be determined by conducting additional studies.

It should be taken into account when assessing blood CPK that this is an enzyme whose high concentrations are observed in skeletal muscle, in the myocardium, a smaller amount of it is in the brain. If there is an increase in the creatine phosphokinase enzyme, the causes of the increase are associated with certain diseases.

”Alt =” ”>

This enzyme is involved in the process of creatine conversion, and also ensures the maintenance of energy metabolism in the cell. Three subtypes of QC are defined:

  • MM – in muscle tissue;
  • MV – in the heart muscle;
  • BB – in the brain.
Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.